ADDIE Design Model: A Review and Evaluation
By Dr. John Peterson, PhD, FPA-BM Chairman of the Board
“Improving human and organizational performance is typically a worthwhile, valuable, and even valiant effort” (Watkins & Leigh, 2010, p.xix). To improve performance there is a need for a plan. Designing a plan using an instructional design model that will support the desired outcomes is fundamental to success. The major purpose of an instructional design model is to improve instruction through the analysis of learning needs, and by developing a system of learning tools.
The ADDIE model is a broad method usually used by training developers and instructional designers. ADDIE is the acronym for the five phases of the model, (1) analysis, (2) design, (3) development, (4) implementation, and (5) evaluation (Figure).
ADDIE is the appropriate chosen design model for the performance intervention project detailed in this paper. Criticized in recent years, ADDIE is not a perfect model; however, it is a dynamic model, presenting flexibility for building effective training and performance support tools.
Performance Deficiencies at ABC University
An ADDIE analysis of ABC University finds that the university, founded in 1979, has not changed its core culture of “students come first” as its mission and value. However, this is conflicting with the new concepts of an open world based on relationships and not on principles of individualism.
ABC University can benefit from several adjustments in its culture and mission to create an educational environment that stimulates learning the skills necessary for succeeding in a globalized society.
Bonk (2009) explained this concept by claiming that, “There is no mistaking the societal trend over the past couple of decades from a highly competitive focus, in school and in industry, toward the need for a greater collaboration and teamwork skills” (p. 249).
This outlook is one of the major performance problems at the university. Briefly, this paper addresses psychological, political, cultural, and technological factors preventing the adoption of a globalized education and as part of completing the first step using of the ADDIE design model.
A globalized 21st century requires from students critical learning skills and innovations. According to Trilling and Fadel (2009), examples of students’ critical learning skills and innovations are: (a) creativity and innovation, (b) communication and collaboration, and (c) critical thinking and problem solving. The lack of experience by students in these skills has a large impact in the psychological assurance that they can accomplish a successful career.
ABC University has a student population consisting of a large majority of adult learners who have had previous experiences with other educational institutions and for most part, failed. These students have the frustration and low self-steam brought on unsuccessful experiences and are psychologically fragile.
Integrating these students within a larger community of international students will favor their motivation and retention improving their academic success. Ann ADDIE-oriented project design will be used to develop and implement a venue of communication among students of different communities reflecting a positive influence in the students’ mindset.
As elucidated by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (2008b), “growing flows of knowledge, people and financing cross national borders and feed both worldwide collaboration and competition” (p. 1). These political factors: international mobility, multinational communications, and economical and financial competition transcending boarders -dictate student’s education. The absence of international exchange and cross-cultural exchange at ABC University is prejudicial to the interest of students’ political experience.
Even though ABC University lacks offering a globalized political experience to its students, there is a rich international political background already in place coming from a large number of international students attending the institution waiting to share. This plan for performance improvement will address this important issue.
An ADDIE-oriented project will improve performance of political development by establishing channels of interaction among students from different political origins, and as a consequence, experience will be a benefit to their learning journey at the university.
Allemann-Ghionda (2001) advised that, the international and multicultural character of society, linked to migration and other phenomena related to globalization, should be a considered topic in the contents of curricula, because of the differentiation that really matters in society. In Allemann-Ghionda’s opinion, it is the social and economic situation of individuals and groups, and the project for performance improvement will consider his opinion as part of the ADDIE design.
The culture of ABC University has a strong impact in the elaboration and performance of classroom activities. Although there is respect for academic freedom by the university, faculty feels the pressure of the organization’s culture in their decision-making, from building lesson plans to how lectures are presented.
An ADDIE-based design project has to have the cultural change provoked by developing and implementing a plan for performance improvement as one of the expected results.
For an educational organization to be successful delivering content to students, it is primordial the use of technology. Technology is an intrinsic factor as students face a globalized education, and the technological tools available at ABC University are not adequate to meet the needs of students. An ADDIE-based design project to improve the institution’s performance in conducting a globalized approach to students’ learning has to consider technological factor as one of its major components.
ADDIE Performance Design Model
ADDIE Analysis Phase
Clarification of the problem characterizes the ADDIE analysis phase. In this phase, ADDIE establishes instructional goals, and objectives; also, identifies the learning environment and learner’s existing knowledge and skills. The following issues are questions addressed during the analysis phase suggested by many authors:
- “Who are the audience and their characteristics?”
- “Identify the new behavioral outcome”
- “What types of learning constraints exist?”
- “What are the delivery options?”
- “What are the online pedagogical considerations?”
- “What is the timeline for project completion?”
A previous paper has presented the analysis phase. The next paper, the final project for performance improvement at ABC University details the remaining ADDIE phases (briefly discussed below).
ADDIE Design Phase
Learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning, and media selection are part of the ADDIE design phase, which should be a detailed, rational, methodical method of developing, identifying, and evaluating a set of planned strategies aiming the attainment of the project’s goals. Excellent!
ADDIE Development Phase
The development phase is where the developers create and assemble the content assets created in the design phase. According to Strickland (n.d.), “the development phase builds on the Process Performance Objectives and measurement tools constructed in the design phase. The product of this phase is a detailed plan of action that lists step-by-step procedures for implementing the change; the plan also needs to include who is responsible for which elements of the project, and time schedules and deadlines” (para. 2).
ADDIE Implementation Phase
“During the implementation phase, procedures for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators’ training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Preparation of the learners include training them on new tools (software or hardware), student registration” (Strickland, n.d.).
ADDIE Evaluation Phase
The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users.
As shown ADDIE has a great potential of serving as the model for performance improvement design to bring a globalization-oriented learning experience to ABC University students. ADDIE is a well-known design model and its use is practical considering the purpose of the project discussed.
In addition, there is a strong influence of psychological, political, cultural, and technological factors preventing the adoption of a globalized education by ABC University that should be addressed in a future performance improvement plan.
Bonk, C. (2009). The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Centre for Educational Research, & Innovation (2008a). Higher education to 2030: Demography. In Higher education to 2030: Demography (Volume 1). Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Centre for Educational Research, & Innovation (2008b). Higher education to 2030: Globalization. In Higher education to 2030: Demography (Volume 2). Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Culley, A. (2007). Towards my instructional design model. Retrieved from http://www.instructionaldesign.com.au/Academic/IDModels.htm#addie
Spring, J. (2009). Globalization of education: An introduction. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
Strickland, A.W. (n.d.). A.D.D.I.E. Idaho State University College of Education. Retrieved from http://ed.isu.edu/addie/
Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: learning for life in our times. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Watkins, R., & Leigh, D. (2010). Introduction to volume two. In R. Watkins & D. Leigh (Eds.), Handbook of improving performance in the workplace (Vol. 2) San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer/John Wiley & Sons.
The FPA-BM has as Chairman of the Board Dr. John Peterson, Ph.D. A leading education specialist for over 15 years, Dr. John Peterson is a published author and the creator and implementer of several undergraduate and graduate programs. Emphasizing practical access to learning methodologies, Dr. Peterson has developed curricula focused on online and face-to-face training, optimizing new technologies for the benefit of his students’ achievements in real-world careers. In addition, Dr. Peterson is an experienced consultant to the requirements of the Florida Department of Education regarding the licensing and compliance of new institutions.