Questões Éticas dentro das Organizações

Questões Éticas Dentro das Organizações

By Dr Nilsa Fleury, DeD, FPA-BM Director of Education

Introdução

O comportamento ético representa um aspecto importante do clima dentro das organizações. Johnson (2012) afirmou que o “clima ético é melhor entendido como parte da cultura de uma organização” (p. 319). Weston (2008) explicou que fazer uma contribuição moral não é apenas fazer julgamentos ou reagir a problemas morais, mas também criar soluções ou abster-se deles. Discriminação e diversidade são alguns exemplos de que qualquer organização precisa trabalhar com funcionários, dar mais respeito e criar condições para desenvolver um clima ético. Além disso, a ética ajuda a desenvolver o pensamento crítico necessário para a tomada de decisões importantes.

Desenvolver perspectivas éticas ajuda os funcionários a se tornarem mais responsáveis ​​e tomar melhores decisões. Tópicos como o aprendizado organizacional, a mudança estratégica, a discriminação das mulheres, a diversidade, a corrupção, as violações, o comportamento não ético, o bullying, a falta de conduta, e a transparência da informação estão sendo analisados ​​como tendo um impacto ético nas organizações. A liderança transformacional é uma grande contribuição para que os seguidores sejam bem sucedidos, em que influência e motivação são características principais que os líderes precisam aplicar. No entanto, os líderes falham quando não tomam ações para resolver os problemas e combater as perspectivas do mal. Neste caso, eles precisam usar o poder para atacar os problemas do mal ou o processo de perdão (Johnson, 2012).

Grandes líderes se concentram em boa comunicação, feedback, confiança e moral para manter um clima ético. Por outro lado, os líderes também podem cometer erros. Johnson (2012) disse que “a motivação disfuncional é um bom primeiro passo para explicar o lado sombrio da liderança” (p. 51). Os problemas éticos nas organizações citadas acima devem ser equilibrados através de argumentos, opiniões e premissas para criar melhores decisões. Na entrevista de Tannen (Gergen, 1998), o equilíbrio entre dois pontos de vista diferentes é necessário para tomar uma decisão melhor. De acordo com a entrevista de Tannen, é necessário fazer argumentos ou conflitos para analisar questões críticas. A análise crítica de problemas éticos, como antes citados, precisa ser coerente com a moral, o respeito e a dignidade para ser imparcial com os outros.

Aprendizagem organizacional e implementação de mudanças estratégicas

O impacto da capacidade de aprendizagem organizacional (OLC) sobre o comportamento dos funcionários foi objeto de estudo desenvolvido por Camps e Majocchi (2010). A análise do papel de mediação de empregabilidade e compromisso organizacional ajudou a manter as relações entre o OLC eo comportamento dos funcionários (Camps & Majocchi, 2010). Para entender melhor essa relação, os autores definiram a empregabilidade como “a capacidade de se auto-suficiente no mercado de trabalho para realizar o potencial através do emprego sustentável” (Camps & Majocchi, 2010, p.113). Camps e Majocchi (2010) também disseram que “a capacidade de aprendizagem organizacional (OLC) é definida como as características organizacionais e gerenciais ou fatores que facilitam o processo de aprendizagem organizacional ou permitem que a organização aprenda” (p.129). Por outro lado, as atitudes ou o comportamento dos funcionários no ambiente de trabalho podem afetar o comportamento ético dos indivíduos. Alguns estudos se concentram em comportamentos não éticos, como mentirosos, trapaças e roubos.

Este estudo segue o comportamento ético e, conseqüentemente, usou itens que questionaram sobre comportamentos não éticos que prejudicaram a organização. Para manter e melhorar o desempenho, as organizações precisam mudar. Foram utilizados questionários e escalas no estudo Camps e Majocchi (2010) para medir a percepção de empregabilidade, OLC e percepção ética. O comportamento ético também foi medido neste estudo. Foi encontrada evidência empírica de que existe uma relação positiva entre as percepções do trabalho sobre o OLC e o comportamento ético dos mesmos empregados. Um relacionamento mediado pelo compromisso do trabalhador com as organizações; uma relação positiva entre as percepções do trabalho sobre o OLC da empresa e seu nível de empregabilidade; uma relação positiva entre o nível de empregabilidade percebida pelo trabalhador e o comportamento ético; e um relacionamento mediado pelo compromisso do trabalhador com a organização também foram encontrados neste estudo (Camps & Majocchi, 2010).

Além disso, este estudo forneceu portas abertas para seguir a hipótese de que OLC e empregabilidade têm um impacto no comportamento ético dentro das organizações. As condições de trabalho são outros aspectos a serem observados, facilmente para mulheres em corporações globais e sistema transcultural. Da mesma forma, alguns funcionários reinterpretam questões éticas por causa de pontos de gatilho, ambiguidade, uso do quadro de bem-estar dos funcionários e negócios-chave gerenciais (Sonenshein, 2009). Este estudo cita nas respostas a questões éticas, como “questões morais, julgamento ético, intenção moral e comportamento ético” (Sonenshein, 2009, p. 223). Ao mesmo tempo, a literatura de justiça explica julgamentos, o que implica o enshein (2009) disse que as mudanças dentro das organizações, fazem os gerentes tomar decisões e tomar medidas para implementar as estratégias. Além disso, a implicação do comportamento ético ocorre antes dos julgamentos na tomada de decisões.

Discriminação e Diversidade

Os aspectos sociais e culturais são transformados pelo processo de intervenção feminista sobre o status econômico das mulheres trabalhadoras (Ruwanpura, 2011). O código corporativo e o comércio ético se fundem nas condições de trabalho sem considerar o aumento específico do emprego de mulheres, precisamente no sul global. Neste estudo, Ruwanpura (2011) examinou a contribuição acadêmica nos últimos trinta anos do papel das mulheres no processo de produção de exportação global, os progressos realizados e as lacunas permaneceram. A luta do gênero de forma mais geral ao analisar as situações dos trabalhadores, incluindo as questões dos salários e da exploração das trabalhadoras. Os salários mais baixos do que os homens em empregos comparáveis, que incluem discriminação contra as mulheres por alegação, têm compromisso de trabalho mais fraco com a força de trabalho.

As transgressões sexuais por funcionários menores não casados ​​e não supervisionados são outros aspectos relevantes relacionados a questões éticas e morais como mulheres trabalhadoras relacionadas. Cada país com seus interesses culturais e econômicos é importante para entender debates políticos e nacionalistas sobre o uso e implantação de mulheres trabalhadoras. As análises culturais também são importantes para mostrar como as trabalhadoras tem objetivos sociais complexos e responderam como trabalhadores no setor formal. Um aspecto relevante é como os códigos éticos são implementados e afetam a vida do trabalhador. Diferentes prioridades são aplicadas em cada sociedade política e civil, em defesa dos direitos humanos e giram em torno de códigos éticos.

Embora, as mulheres em muitas corporações adotem o código de conduta, a falta de foco na atenção aos seus problemas, cria exclusão e dificuldades na melhoria das condições (Ruwanpura, 2011). Caso contrário, o estudo foi mais concentrado em ambientes industriais, onde Ruwanpura (2011) poderia desenvolver o estudo. Outra declaração deste estudo relacionou-se com o desemprego, os locais comparativos de custo e as mudanças qualitativas fora do trabalho, como aspectos sociais e econômicos. Os debates mais amplos sobre comércio ético e códigos corporativos devem ser considerados na pesquisa de questões específicas. Outros estudos foram desenvolvidos para abordar uma séria preocupação com a segurança fora do ambiente de trabalho.

O papel de liderança deve ser desempenhado para apoiar uma corporação multinacional em um país em desenvolvimento, embora a ética funcione em uma situação de risco (Lorenzo, Esqueda e Larson, 2009). O ambiente empresarial global integra diferentes culturas em economias desenvolvidas e emergentes. O contexto mostrou que 1,2 milhão de mortes em 2002 de acidentes de trânsito em todo o mundo e os países desenvolvidos foram responsáveis ​​por 88% dessas mortes, que deverão aumentar em média em mais de 80% até 2020 (Lorenzo et al., 2009). Educar os trabalhadores e os gerentes de forma ética para evitar acidentes em um mundo global é o objetivo.

Corrupção corporativa, violações e comportamento anti-ético

Bishara e Schipani (2009) definiram a corrupção em geral “englobando a auto-negociação executiva, o que prejudica suas empresas” (p. 765). A fraude corporativa pode ser citada como Eron, WorldCom, Tyco e Adelphia (Bishara & Schipani, 2009). Os autores identificaram a corrupção através da análise legal do impacto sobre os acionistas e a falta de integridade gerencial em seus contratos. Alguns autores também consideram a interação da empresa multinacional com membros governamentais por meio de pagamentos de subornos como um problema de corrupção. O professor Thomas Dunfee e outros co-autores escreveram na literatura de ética empresarial sobre o problema da corrupção (Bishara & Schipani, 2009). Eles apresentaram um quadro de organização com obrigações éticas para que os diretores se candidatassem a qualquer corporação.

O quadro foi composto por seis valores éticos fundamentais, que eram honestidade, integridade, lealdade, responsabilidade, justiça e cidadania (Bishara & Schipani, 2009). Os custos da corrupção não são transparentes e difíceis de medir. Suborno é um claro intercâmbio de vantagens entre empresas e governos que perdoam impostos ou multas. Certamente, os custos totais de suborno não têm os efeitos positivos. Além disso, viola os princípios morais da ética. As corporações podem descrever alguns princípios em seus códigos que protegem contra corrupções dentro e fora de sua organização (Bishara & Schipani, 2009). Os princípios defendidos por Dunfee e Hess dirigidos a identificar e prevenir potenciais lapsos éticos, estabelecer mecanismos no nível da empresa para detectar e erradicar a corrupção e aprender com as falhas do passado para fornecer feedback positivo para se engajar na auto-regulação (Bishara & `Schipani, 2009). Pode ajudar qualquer organização a prevenir a corrupção e envolver os princípios éticos em seu ambiente.

A liderança no campo da ética empresarial foi demonstrada por esta estrutura proposta pelo Dr. Dunfee que pode ser útil para qualquer organização anização para proteger seus negócios e o impacto do comportamento antiético através de seus funcionários e partes interessadas. Graaf (2010) acrescentou a importância de atender a violações na administração pública, onde as violações de integridade universal nem sempre foram relatadas. Para esclarecer, a integridade é a visão de acordo com valores, normas e regras morais. É responsabilidade dos funcionários públicos e da sociedade denunciar as violações. Além disso, as organizações não governamentais (ONGs) tornaram-se eficazes ao relatar numerosos casos de corrupção global (Fassin, 2009). Grupos de ativistas, como o Greenpeace, pressionaram as corporações globais a atuar com mais responsabilidade.

Liderança, a má conduta do empregado e o clima etico.

A falta de emprego, assim como o bullying, pode afetar o clima ético. Precisamente, os líderes podem diminuir o impacto do comportamento de bullying educando os trabalhadores e tornando o ambiente melhor. O bullying pode causar consequências para as organizações, como o volume de negócios, o absenteísmo, a redução do comprometimento e da produtividade (Stouten, Baillien, Broeck, Camps, Witte e Euwema, 2010). A liderança ética é responsável por desencorajar as pessoas do bullying em ambientes de trabalho. Stouten et al. (2010) escreveu: “o bullying é a ação desviante mais impactante com a qual os trabalhadores podem ser confrontados” (p.17). O bullying afeta a saúde dos trabalhadores causando doenças físicas, depressão, menor interação social, ansiedade e insônia. Éticamente, o design e o clima do local de trabalho podem ser usados ​​para melhorar os trabalhadores.

Além disso, líderes éticos podem ajudar a diminuir os trabalhadores através do ambiente quantitativo (isto é, carga de trabalho) e qualitativo (isto é, condições precárias) (Stouten et al., 2010). O bullying também está relacionado à falta de respeito e responsabilidade, e a má conduta em relação aos outros. Stouten et al. (2010) descreveu “bullying no local de trabalho como assediante, ofendendo, excluindo socialmente alguém ou afetando algumas tarefas de trabalho” (p. 18). O bullying tem sido um dos graves problemas dentro das organizações, negócios ou educação, que as vítimas são protegidas por lei. Além disso, o bullying é chamado quando o comportamento negativo é repetidamente e regularmente. As características individuais dos funcionários e do meio ambiente são determinantes do bullying. O ruído, as altas temperaturas e a falta de ferramentas aumentam o comportamento agressivo, frustrações e refletem em condições físicas.

Por outro lado, os líderes podem prevenir as condições físicas que afetam o trabalho de qualidade e conseqüentemente o clima. Os líderes éticos precisam conversar com os funcionários sobre o que é a conduta apropriada no trabalho. A liderança ética tem uma relação negativa com o bullying, pode reduzir o comportamento desviado e não ético dos funcionários e pode proteger a vulnerabilidade dos funcionários contra o bullying (Stouten et al., 2010). Fazendo as coisas certas, os líderes éticos incentivam, motivam e valorizam os funcionários. Além disso, a condição de confiança é importante neste processo (Brown, 2000). Através dos funcionários também podem mudar seu comportamento para um clima melhor. Os líderes precisam usar algumas estratégias para melhorar o ambiente. Os líderes éticos também precisam ajudar as organizações a melhorar a cultura das organizações com seus valores e crenças.

A cultura, o código de ética e a motivação também podem mudar o comportamento dos funcionários para melhor. Enquanto isso, o comportamento antiético e desviante tem conseqüências para um clima de trabalho ético (Mayer, Kuenzi e Greenbaum, 2010). Johnson (2012) descreveu uma variedade de sistemas de crenças, demonstrando o respeito pelos valores dos outros, tratando os outros com justiça, expressões de preocupação e preocupação, escuta, responsabilidade, apreciando a conduta dos outros e envolvendo uma prática reflexiva. Consequentemente, os líderes têm algumas ferramentas para promover o comportamento ético dentro das organizações. Além disso, crie um clima positivo para dissolver o comportamento antiético, os líderes podem se concentrar na resolução de problemas, criar oportunidades de interação, apoiar os trabalhadores e entender as emoções dos trabalhadores. A liderança é a forma de moderar qualquer confronto entre os funcionários dentro das organizações.

Certamente, os líderes abrem comunicações com funcionários para argumentos, opiniões e pensamento crítico para resolver conflitos. Reforçando o processo de liderança, Weston (2008) citou “a visão é vital na ética também” (pág. 347), que é uma das características mais importantes dos líderes éticos, que precisa ensinar os funcionários a atuarem melhor para o futuro. Os funcionários com visão, esperanças e negócios também podem conduzir melhor seu comportamento. Os líderes éticos também podem ter discussões de incentivos sobre conflitos para estabelecer um terreno comum e manter um clima melhor dentro das organizações. Ao fazer perguntas, abrir a comunicação e compartilhar experiências, os funcionários podem diminuir o comportamento antiético e crescer.

No entanto, alguns líderes se beneficiam do comportamento de seguidores não éticos (UFB), embora os mais líderes desaprovam UFB (Hoogervorst, Cremer, & Dijke, 2010). O papel da responsabilidade faz as pessoas manterem uma forma ética e avaliar positivamente. Embora, líderes ou seguidores contratados para defender suas empresas, alguns líderes atuam de acordo com seus próprios interesses. Além disso, as ações antiéticas não devem vir de um bom líder. De acordo com o estudo desenvolvido por Hoogervorst et al. (2010) em uma universidade holandesa, eles escreveram que líderes em organizações influenciam decisões éticas e antiéticas e atuam para seus seguidores. Os líderes que são responsabilizados são mais propensos a refutar a UFB.Mayer et al. (2010) escreveu um “clima ético também é uma mediação da relação entre liderança ética e má conduta dos funcionários” (p.7). Acontece quando a liderança ética demonstrou e alguns líderes não possuem uma conduta apropriada para os funcionários que usam comunicação, reforço, feedback e tomada de decisão de dois sentidos.

Embora, a má conduta dos funcionários no trabalho se relaciona com o clima ético. Neste caso, “os climas éticos ajudam os indivíduos a saber quais tipos de comportamentos (un) éticos são (não) aceitáveis ​​na unidade de trabalho” (Mayer et al., 2010). Às vezes, as situações de conflito são importantes para criar ou inovar oportunidades com melhores ambientes para as organizações. De acordo com Mayer et al. (2010), esta é uma questão crítica para que as organizações diminuam a má conduta dos funcionários. Além disso, os líderes nem sempre desaprovam o comportamento de seguidores não éticos (UFB) e o que é aprovado ou não é aprovado, os comportamentos morais e imorais os ajudam a criar um clima ético em suas organizações (Hoogervorst et al., 2010).

Além disso, os líderes com prestação de contas dependem do comportamento moral e ético e do interesse próprio da perspectiva dos seguidores. A idéia dos seres humanos traz a idéia de ter uma maneira positiva. Os seguidores também prevêem quando os líderes desaprovaram o comportamento antiético. A liderança ética é uma abordagem para ser uma pesquisa no futuro mais profunda para descrever questões éticas e anti-éticas.

Transparência de informações

Além disso, outros aspectos ocorrem dentro das organizações que afetam práticas e princípios éticos para permitir que o número de informações divulgado seja acessível para toda a organização. Turilli e Floridi (2009) descreveram a transparência nas disciplinas de gerenciamento de informações que tendem a ser usadas para se referir à visibilidade e na informática e tecnologia da informação (TI); ele refere uma condição de invisibilidade da informação, como um aplicativo ou processo que é transparente para o usuário. Embora, este estudo tenha sido citado apenas quando a informação foi acessada para as pessoas. Além disso, informações transparentes apoiam a tomada de decisões dentro das organizações. As questões éticas também foram um desafio para os provedores de informações.

Entretanto, a divulgação de informações também pode representar uma oportunidade de negócio. Os autores Turilli e Floridi (2009) não consideram a transparência da informação como um princípio ético por si só, mas uma condição pró-ética que afeta os princípios éticos. O impacto depende de dois tipos de relações entre informação e princípios éticos: dependência e regulação. A informação é necessária para endossar os princípios éticos e, ao mesmo tempo, os princípios éticos regulam a informação. Inicialmente, os princípios éticos, como prestação de contas, segurança, bem-estar e consentimento informado são importantes para a divulgação de informações. Mesmo assim, detalhes falsos, enganosos e inadequados podem danificar a imagem da informação criando uma ação antiética ao público. Além disso, as informações de divulgação das organizações precisam estar comprometidas com princípios éticos.

Conclusão

Fazendo negocios com ética é um grande desafio neste mundo econômico. Atualmente nos Estados Unidos, alguns líderes estão lutando contra a tomada de decisões com ações anti-éticas. Exemplos de ações anti-éticas aconteceram dentro de organizações como Tyco, Eron e Adelphia, cujos líderes eram corruptos e tinham falta de habilidades gerenciais para resolver problemas. As decisões antiéticas são às vezes convenientes para os líderes, que usam a oportunidade de fazer negócios de acordo com a situação. Por exemplo, o governo em alguns países para fazer negócios internacionais aceitam suborno.

Outro problema anti-ético está acontecendo na China, onde é permitido copiar marcas famosas como a Apple para fazer mercadorias ilegais. No entanto, algumas empresas trabalham com aprendizagem organizacional e possibilitam melhorar o clima dos trabalhadores, que têm impacto no comportamento ético (Camps & Majocchi, 2010). Positivamente, algumas empresas aplicam decisões éticas para que as empresas tenham sucesso. O estilo de liderança também tem uma enorme influência na ética que faz os seguidores confiarem, eles têm mais responsabilidade, e eles serão mais seguros sobre sua tomada de decisão. Além disso, os líderes podem ajudar a melhorar o clima organizacional e criar um ambiente melhor para os funcionários dentro da organização.

Os líderes também podem ter impacto na má conduta do empregado como bullying, quando eles têm comportamento anti-ético. Além disso, a definicao estratégica também faz com que os funcionários chamem a atenção para o processo de fazer sentido em ter um conteúdo ético. A implementação de mudanças de negócios também causa implicações comportamentais éticas. Infelizmente, a discriminação das mulheres tem sido um problema no seculo 21, quando as organizações ainda conservam as melhores posições para os homens, e as mulheres ficam  em uma posição não privilegiada em empregos comparáveis. Assim, o gênero ainda é um problema a ser resolvido dentro das organizações, onde o código de ética pode ser um grande apoio.

Outra questão é trabalhar com a diversidade dentro da organização que precisa lidar com diferentes culturas com diversos valores e crenças. Conseqüentemente, os líderes precisam criar melhores condições para os funcionários, que trabalham em um ambiente multicultural. Em seguida, a transparência da informação tem os dois pontos de vista que, de acordo com a entrevista de Tannen (Gergen, 1998). Precisa da mediação para dispersar a informação dentro e fora das organizações.

O mais importante é ter um equilíbrio para decidir se a informação pode ser divulgada ou não para questões éticas e sua importância na tomada de decisões. Transparência é sobre o que pode ser divulgado, embora os líderes nem sempre mostram transparência sobre suas informações para fazer melhores negociações. Precisamente, o melhor negócio lida com princípios éticos. Os problemas técnicos nos negócios apresentados podem ser resolvidos com bons líderes, um código de ética, confiança e transparência. Swartz e Spong (2009) também descreveram a importância das abordagens de negócios econômicas e éticas pelos costumes, crenças, valores e processos de tomada de decisão.

Ambos os lados, éticos e antiéticos, precisam ser observados para dar uma melhor tomada de decisão. Embora, a maioria das organizações precisa trabalhar com respeito, dignidade e dar apoio aos funcionários. Na verdade, a confidencialidade e os regulamentos são importantes para resolver um problema ético. As questões éticas nos negócios podem ser resolvidas mais rapidamente quando os funcionários têm compromisso e confiança nas organizações. Ao mesmo tempo, os países precisam melhorar melhor sua regulamentação para negócios internacionais em um mundo global.

Fazer as coisas mais fáceis e transparentes pode criar melhores relacionamentos e clima para os funcionários. As questões como discriminação, bullying e diversidade precisam de mais suporte de regulamentação para manter um comportamento ético melhor dentro das organizações. Os funcionários e a sociedade são responsáveis ​​por denunciar a corrupção ou qualquer outra violação dentro das organizações públicas. Poder e responsabilidade precisam estar juntos para apoiar as ações do líder.

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Turilli, M., Floridi, L. (2009). The ethics of information technology. Ethics Information Technology, 11, pp.105-112. doi; 10.1007/s10676-009-9187-9

Weston, A. (2008). A 21st century ethical toolbox (2nd. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.


The FPA-BM has as Director of Education Dr. Nilsa Fleury, Ed.D. Dr. Nilsa, is a consultant, university professor and information analyst. Dr. Nilsa graduated in Business Administration from FACE – UFMG, postgraduate in Industrial Economics – UFMG, Specialization in Information Systems by UNA – Cepederh. She holds a Master in Business Science and Doctorate in Education, concentration in Leadership at Nova Southeastern University. She worked as a consultant for the government and private sector in Brazil, USA and Canada. In addition, Dr. Nilsa taught business in some universities in Brazil. She teaches Business and Education courses for undergraduate and graduate courses in the USA.

 

Cooperative Learning

Cooperative Learning

By Dr Nilsa Fleury, DeD, FPA-BM Director of Education

Cooperative Learning (CL) is an instructional strategy that contributes to social integration through collaboration and integration of effective small-groups (Bennett & Rolheiser, 2008). The most complex of CL are strategies and the simpler ones are tactics (Bennett & Rolheiser, 2008). Examples of CL strategies are jigsaw, group investigation, team analysis, and academic controversy. Next, think-pair-share, inside outside circles, and the three-step interview are examples of tactics in CL. According to Sharan (2010), CL is “a pedagogy that generates a diversified body of methods of instruction which organize students ‘to work in groups toward a common goal or outcome, or share a common problem or task in such a way that they can succeeded in complete the work through behavior that demonstrates interdependence, while holding individual contributions and efforts accountable”’ (p. 4).

Marzano (2003) said that structured tasks or effective transfer of knowledge are required by the process of learning. Thus, CL groups are small, structured, and heterogeneous. Certainly, students rely on each other to complete the tasks. In addition, students have accountability, and they promote face-to face interaction in a small group. Dyson, Lynehan, and Hastie (2010) described in their research the instructional ecology of CL in elementary physical education classes and identified four main categories: (a) organization and management of student; (b) roles; (c) skill development; and (d) strategizing. Dyson et al. (2010) defined   CL as “an instructional model in which students work together in small, structured, heterogeneous groups to complete group tasks” (p. 113). The definition from Dyson et al. (2010) reinforced the idea of the other authors cited before.

The small groups facilitate the communication between the individuals. In a Canadian elementary school Dyson et al.(2010) wrote that the teacher believed that CL improve students motor skills, developed social skills, helped them work together as a team, and helped others to improve their skills. Interpersonal and small group skills are developed through the tasks that include listening, shared decision making, taking responsibility, giving and receiving feedback, and encouraging each other (Dyson, Linehan, and Hastie, 2010). The process of creating and reorganizing meanings represent the learning process. Effective CL has four steps to follow described by Johnson and Johnson (in Nan & Lee, 2010) or effective CL: (1) specifying the instructional objectives; (2) making pre-instructional decisions; (3) structuring the learning task and positive interdependence; and (4) monitoring and intervening.

Interpersonal Intelligence

The most powerful predictor of whether or not an individual will be successful in life is interpersonal intelligence that CL approach in classroom and school environments (Bennett & Rolheiser, 2008). Nam and Lee (2010) defined interpersonal intelligence as “the ability to understand others’ emotions, belief, and thought” (p. 25).  Learner’s characteristics such as cognitive aspects- intelligence and  learning styles- and affective aspects–attitudes, values, and motivation-are important to active and to interact among the group members (Nam & Lee, 2010). Mutual help and trust are considered positive interdependence and individual accountability found in CL activities (Nam & Lee, 2010). Interpersonal intelligence encompasses the ability to approach personal issues and opinions of others. Students with higher interpersonal intelligence show positive attitudes in a web-based learning environment. Therefore, Nam and Lee (2010) found that in CL teachers should consider the level of students’ interpersonal intelligence.

Effective Group Work

Johnson and Johnson in 1989 (Goodell, Cooke, & Ash) defined the five conditions of a successful CL: (a) positive interdependence; (b) individual accountability; (c) promotive interaction; (d) interpersonal skills; and (e) group processing. Positive interdependence occurs when individuals working together for success; individual accountability when students contributions are necessary to the group and the responsibility for his/her own learning; promotive interaction through the students working together to teach and learn from each other; interpersonal or social skills are used through the acts to help everyone in a group and for everyone to get along; and group processing access the group’s efforts  in terms of their academic performance and collaborative interaction. The group works together with all five conditions in a successful CL. Johnson and Johnson (2009) described conditions for constructive competition, which include “completing the task effectively and perceive one’s participation as being personally worldwide” (p. 370). In some cases, competitiveness is considered positive and some cases negative, which relate to psychological health such as conditional self-esteem and egocentrism. Further, CL has been used for different teachers, subjects, level, cultures, and countries in with effectiveness in almost taken for granted (Johnson & Johnson 2009).

Benefits of CL

According to Shimazoe and Aldrich (2010), CL brings benefits for students in the following areas: (a) promotes deep learning; (b) helps earn high grades; (c) teaches social skills and civic values; (d) teaches higher order thinking skills; (e) promotes personal growth; and (f) develops personal growth. Instructors also get benefits from CL such as giving more time to reflect on how well students are learning and decreasing grade loads. Students and instructors can benefit from CL to express their concerns, problems, and opinions and maintain a positive climate and sense of community. Creating a strong sense of team identity; the actions of helping, encouraging, and supporting are beneficial in engaging the students (Hsiung, 2010). Students who study cooperatively have benefits in their learning performance. CL helps students’ behavior and several studies show that students’ characteristics such as ethnicity and prior knowledge influence their behavior and learning gains (Oortwijn, Boekaerts, Vedder, & Strijbos, 2008).

 Strategies of Communication and Using Cloud Computing

Solomon, Heckendom, and Souble (2012) stated that communication is a critical condition to coordinate an individual’s actions; it must be sure that the right information is exchange between individuals at the same time. The communication network plays a critical role and has a significant effect on the success of the process. The teacher needs to assure that the students clearly understand the clearly the task and communicate effectively with each other. Cloud computing technologies enhance the instructional strategies predicted on constructivism and CL (Denton, 2012). As an example Google Docs and Microsoft Office presented this application like file sharing and online publishing that are supporting the Department of Education through the classrooms.

In this case, students can share files and add information to solve the problem. CL is aligned to cloud technologies, where individuals work together to accomplish the goal. This effectiveness of CL in classrooms has being proven by researchers. Denton (2012) describes some strategies to apply cloud computing: ( a) group projects; (b) peer assessment; (c) student constructed presentations; (d) simultaneous class discussions;(e) collaborate reflection; (f) assisting writing; (g) learning illustrated; (h) class inventory; (i) collaborative rubric construction; and  (j) website publishing. Certainly, technology has made a lot of contribution to education engaging in different subjects.

Conclusion

CL is a great instructional strategy that enhances the performance of students in classroom settings. It contributes to social, intellectual, and personal individuals’ growth. Each type of CL has methods to develop accountability and trust between the members to accomplish their goals. Adding interpersonal intelligence to perceive others feelings, thoughts, and contributions is a significant aspect to develop a successful CL. Positive results, from students using CL, motivate teachers to use this strategy to develop tasks inside the classroom. Communication is a key to coordinate teams and make the members understand each other   the task to be developed. In addition, cloud computing has been applied to help teachers, motivate teams, and engage students in activities that share the technological platform.

References

Bennett, G. & Rolheiser (2001). Beyond Monet: The artful science of instructional integration. Toronto, Ontario: Bookation, Inc.

Denton, D. W. (2012). Enhancing instruction through constructivism, CL, and cloud computing. TechTrends, 56(4), pp. 34-41

Dyson, B. P., Linehan, N. R., & Hastie, P. A. (2010). The ecology of CL in elementary physical education classes. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29, pp. 113-130.

Goodell, S. L., Cooke, N. K., & Ash, S. L. (2012). CL through in-class team work: An approach to classroom instruction in a life cycle nutrition course. NACTA Journal, pp. 68-75.

Hsiung, C. M. (2010). Identification of dysfunctional CL teams based on student’s academic achievement. Journal of Engineering Education, pp. 45-54.

Johnson, D. W., & Jonhson, R. T. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and CL. Educational Researcher, 38 (5), pp. 365-379. doi: 10.3102/0013189×09339057

Marzano, R. J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexander, VA: ASCD.

Nam, C. W., & Lee, H. (2010). The relationship between student’s interpersonal intelligence and their attitudes toward CL in a web-based environment, 17 (2), pp. 23-35.

Oortwijn, M. B., Boekaerts, M., Vedder, P., & Strijbos, J. W. (2008). Helping behavior during CL and learning gains. The role of the teacher and of pupils’ prior knowledge and ethnic background. Learning and Instruction, 18, pp.146-159.

Sharan, Y. (2010). CL for academic and social gains: Valued pedagogy, problematic practice. European Journal of Education, 45(2), pp. 300-313. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3435.2010.01430.x

Shimazoe, J. & Aldrich, H.  (2010). Group work can be gratifying: Understanding & overcoming resistance to CL. College Teaching, 58, pp. 52-57. doi: 10.1080/87567550903418594

Solomon, M., Heckendorn, R., & Soule T. (2012). A comparison of communication strategies in CL. The fourteenth international conference on genetic and evolutionary computation.GECCo’12. Retrieved from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2330163.2330185


The FPA-BM has as Director of Education Dr. Nilsa Fleury, Ed.D. Dr. Nilsa, is a consultant, university professor and information analyst. Dr. Nilsa graduated in Business Administration from FACE – UFMG, postgraduate in Industrial Economics – UFMG, Specialization in Information Systems by UNA – Cepederh. She holds a Master in Business Science and Doctorate in Education, concentration in Leadership at Nova Southeastern University. She worked as a consultant for the government and private sector in Brazil, USA and Canada. In addition, Dr. Nilsa taught business in some universities in Brazil. She teaches Business and Education courses for undergraduate and graduate courses in the USA.

 

Successful Work Teams

Successful Work Teams

By Dr Nilsa Fleury, DeD, FPA-BM Director of Education

Competency, composition, and context for the team are not always present in the work environment. Many organizations apply different strategies such as training, workshops, conferences call, and face to face meetings to maintain the team-work performance. The effectiveness of team building comes from the skills and knowledge of the members and their engagement and synergy in decision-making.

Organization Requirements Teams to be a Success

The four c’s context, composition, competency, and change can better define requirements of the team to be successful. The first can describe the organizational environment of the team work relates to the context. High performing team are effective by meeting their goals, reward team performance, culture of the organization that support team work oriented process and behavior, and eliminating any obstacle created by the structure organization. In addition, the skills, competences, experience, and motivation define the composition of the team. Having the right people on the team to make the things happen is the issue.

The high-performing teams select skilled and motivated individuals; develop the member’s skills and their commitment to achieve the goals; cut individuals with lack of skills and motivation; manage differently the members; and make sure the teams are in the right size. Next, competency is defined by the team’s ability to communicate, make decisions, and manage conflicts. Further, the high –performing teams articulate and achieve their goals, build trust and commitment within the team, and solve problems. Lastly, the teams have opportunities to make necessary changes. To be effective high-performing teams need to change or adapt a new condition over time.

Solving Specific Problems

Unfortunately, organizations need to work with conflicts and disagreements and manage the individuals and teams to solve the problems. The best way to understand conflict is to view it as an expectation of what is to be done, when it should to be done, and how it is to be done. Leaders can also violate subordinates’ expectations when they do not recognize that they have a life outside of the workplace, micromanaging their work, and not giving rewards to them. On the other hand, subordinates violate team leaders’ expectations when they miss or are late to the meetings, do not complete assignments, and do not demonstrating commitments to support the priorities. Lastly, peers can also violate expectations when they do not share resources, do not respond requests in time, or do not share credit for a job well done.

Challenges for Building Effective Teams

A meta–competency to change team context, composition, and competency to improve team performance is viewed as the ability of teams to engage in team building. Effective teams work with activities that need to be reciprocal and interdependent; use the organizational structure to accomplish the goals; select the team members on the basis of clear criteria; train managers and team members; reward team members; set aside time for teams to be involved; help the members to develop a competency at team building, use appropriate technologies, and support managers and leaders to improve team performance (Dyer, Dyer JR., & H. Dyer, 2007). Great teams are developed with trust, commitment, and a vision to be successful.

Team’s Conflict

A high performance team is prepared to develop tasks and be successful. In fact, not all organizations generate a compatible team. Competition and cooperation make people react to conflict (Ayoko, 2007).  In addition, people engaged in competition and with differences have negative feelings, emotions, and doubts about future collaboration. Some organizations do not organize teams as they are supposed to and members do not cooperate with each other, which make the organization unsuccessful and without direction.

Emotional Intelligence

With the skills necessary to develop emotional intelligence, members enhance team work, improve group dynamics and increase performance (Gardenswartz, Chebosque, & Rowe, 2009). Further, organizations do not always want to know individuals’ feelings when the rules are being set up. Coaching teams for emotional intelligence is the way to create synergy and nurture creativity between the members.

Describing Teams

There are different kinds of teams such as temporary teams, virtual teams, and interorganizational or alliance teams. Temporary teams are also called ad hoc committees, task forces, or project teams. Temporary teams are generated for a short duration and limited time. Virtual teams are composed with individuals from different locations, advances in communication technology, and lower the costs. In the case of cross functional teams, the members align their jobs with the jobs requirements (Pryor, Singleton, Taneja, & Toombs, 2009).

Different companies achieve synergy and use advanced technologies to create effective teams with diverse skills. Communication is also a great key to maintain openness between the members and other teams (Ayoko, 2007). Being on a team is being committed to each other, to the mission, vision, goals, objectives and strategies. It is also more than a rational decision or accepting tasks (Pryor, Singleton, Taneja, & Toombs, 2009).

Globalization opens opportunities to work in cross-functional teams, which is a great challenge. Working with diversity people can learn different values, beliefs, culture, and behavior. “Diverse team performed better than teams of members with a similar functional background” (Schaffer, Lei, & Paulino, 2008, p. 9). Diverse team shares more information because they do not know the others skills. Precisely, strategy development is essential to accomplish the goals related to project management. High diverse teams are associated with innovative design and product development (Schaffer, Lei, & Paulino, 2008).

Conclusion

Working in different teams, members become able to get experience and knowledge. Leaders and managers need to support the development of teams to be successful through the innovation and creativity.  Building teams through context, composition, competency, and change can allow organizations to achieve their goals. Developing trust and commitment also permit the team to become more confident in decision-making (Frisch, 2008). Conflicts and adjustments are necessary to creativity and innovation. Training teams by emotional intelligence is a dynamic tool. Working with diversity is also a great is challenge for organizations in 21st. Century.

References

Ayoko, O. B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management, 14 (2), pp. 105-124.

Dyer, W. G., Dyer Jr., W. G., & Dyer, J. H. (2007). Team building. (4th. ed.) . San Francisco, CA: John Willey and Sons, Inc.

Frisch, B. (2008). When teams can’t decide. Harvard Business Review, pp.1-8.

Gardenswartz, L., Cherbosque, J., & Rowe, A. (2009). Coaching teams for emotional intelligence in your diverse workplace. ABI/Inform Global, 63(2), pp. 44-49.

Pryor, M. G., Singleton, L. P., Taneja, S., & Tooms, L. A. (2009). Teaming as a strategic and tactical tool: An analysis with recommendations. International Journal of Management, 26(2), pp. 320-334.

Schaffer, S. P., Lei, K., Paulino, L. R. (2008). A framework for cross-disciplinary team learning and performance. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(3), pp.7-21.

Leading a Learning Organization

Leading a Learning Organization

By Dr Nilsa Fleury, DeD, FPA-BM Director of Education

Education is a key for the next decades and the education system needs to prepare the next generation with a new model of schools and ways of learning. Wood (in Chawla &Renesch, 2006) said “Education must take leadership in co-evolving with the restructuring efforts in other parts of the society: business, health and communities” (p. 404). Today’s classroom is structuring tomorrow’s workplace (Chawla & Renesch, 2006). School setting creates opportunities to build a learning organization, in which students can enhance their skills and pursue their goals to a better future. As leaders, teachers would use necessary tools and strategies (e.g., critical thinking, mastering change, dialogues, knowledge sharing) to support their students in a process of grow.

Chawla and Renesch (2006) reflected that building communities of commitment is a great chance to move forward. Transforming fragmentation, competition, and reactiveness in new culture systems would build a process of learning. The new way of thinking, feeling, and being, in which recovers the memory of whole systems, cooperation, and creation would build a learning community. Well-built communities bring the new systems worldview, the idea of help each other, and creativity. Building learning communities with a nature of commitment that goes beyond people to their organizations.

The real learning occurs with the development of the new capabilities in a continuous cycle of theoretical action and practical conceptualization (Chawla & Renesch, 2006). It will create changes inside the organizations. Changes come from moments of crises, but some learning comes from these changes. The fragmentation of the church is a great example of the changes through the Centuries and the seeds are evident today. In the past, Galileo proposed that the earth is not the center of the universe, and three fundamental theses shift the understanding of mankind and the world: (1) the primacy of the whole involved in three-part process such as break the system, study, and understand the whole from the parts; (2) the community nature of the self that discovered that at the core of a person is pure energy and the network of contractual commitments; and (3) language as generative practice , recognized as tradition of observation, and meaning shared by the community (Chawla & Renesch, 2006). In a learning organization, people stand for a vision with creativity, and thrive in a world of change.

According to Chawla and Renesch (2006)  “A learning organization must be grounded in three foundations: (1) a culture based on transcendent human values of love, wonder, humility, and compassion; (2) a set of practices for generative conversation and coordinated action; and (3) a capacity to see and work with the flow of life as a system” (p. 32). Some strategies of learning arise through performance, practice, and process-oriented design. Transactional learners are more conventional, but they add new ideas and make changes to become transformational learners. The cycle of community-building involves practical experimentation, working together, knowing each other, and applying new knowledge and skills. The five disciplines of Senge (Smith, 2012)- systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, building a sharing vision, and team leading- show a series of principles that each one can study, master, and integrate into his/her life.

Each one of these principles can assist leaders teach followers the best path to challenge the future. In addition, emotion could assist with understanding learning organizations. Defensive reactions from individuals and teams and the process of communication could be the problem that needs to observe in learning organizations (Vince, 2002). However, emotional expression linked to the individual with the dynamics of the organization is the key of organizational learning. Among the strategic importance of emotions in organizational learning, fears and anxiety provide a basis of learning individually and collectively in different ways. Further, Vince (2002) said “It is possible to travel from the start point of anxiety” (p. 79).  Teachers as a leaders need to work with students’ emotions to follow their goals and objectives and be successful. Learning organizations can change the process of teaching and learning for better future of the next generation.

References

Chawla, S., & Renesch, J. (Eds.). (2006). Learning organizations: Developing cultures for tomorrow’s workplace. Portland. OR: Productivity Press.

Smith, P. A. C. (1999). The learning organization ten years on: A case study. The Learning Organization, 6(5), 217-223.

Vince, R. (2002). The impact of emotion on organizational learning. Human Resource Development International, 5(1), pp 73-85. doi: 10.1080/136788601/10016904.


The FPA-BM has as Director of Education Dr. Nilsa Fleury, Ed.D. Dr. Nilsa, is a consultant, university professor and information analyst. Dr. Nilsa graduated in Business Administration from FACE – UFMG, postgraduate in Industrial Economics – UFMG, Specialization in Information Systems by UNA – Cepederh. She holds a Master in Business Science and Doctorate in Education, concentration in Leadership at Nova Southeastern University. She worked as a consultant for the government and private sector in Brazil, USA and Canada. In addition, Dr. Nilsa taught business in some universities in Brazil. She teaches Business and Education courses for undergraduate and graduate courses in the USA

Examining Culture and Climate within an Organization

Examining Culture and Climate within an Organization

By Dr. Michelle Benson, Ed.D., FPA-BM Special Advisor

Introduction

Practically every high performing organization has a unique culture and climate from which they are known for. What needs to be realized is that a unique culture and climate did not just happen one day, but was developed over time through trials and successes. Curtis (2015) points out that climate can be viewed as local or a subset of the total organizational culture. In reflection, Taylor (2014) adds that organizational culture has also been identified as a salient antecedent of performance. In this assignment, comparisons, reflections and personal stories will be shared in examining the systemic culture and climate within an organization.

What are some preliminary observations between the content shared by the authors and your leader’s practices?

Shared and recognized leadership within an organization seems to be about even between Dr. Peter Senge and the authors of “Encouraging the Heart” by: Kouzes and Posner (2003).  Senge (2010) shared in his video: “Organizational Leadership Expert” that collective leadership is fundamentally necessary and as leaders, we must learn from each other. Kouzes and Posner (2003, p.94) shared that an organization’s culture reflects how people are showing appreciation toward one another. In revisiting personal ethics and values, it does matter how much thoughtfulness you put into recognizing someone else’s hard work and unique qualities. These events reflect off you, as a leader and are copied by followers, making them better people in the long run. In reflection of my own practices, I am the leader of my job in the classroom. My practices are tested, tried and true through benchmarking successes, student surveys and recognition by the CEO’s of the organizations that I have worked for in the last 5 years.

From many professional meetings with the CEO of my current organization, I have always been impressed by the level of approachability and use of basic language that a leader in this position represents. There is nothing more appealing to me than to be friends and collegues with a leader such as this one that exudes compassion, recognition and overall happiness in their position. This is not only attractive, but very human.

Over the last 12 years, I have had the opportunity to work for 2 completely exceptional CEO’s and I can honestly state that my values were shaped upon the styles of these leaders. These leaders are the professionals that I, as a future leader in educational leadership would like to mirror and as it stands, my personal style in the classroom has a good chance to reach those levels in the future. In fact, I have students that I taught 10 years ago that still keep in touch and still call me Professor Benson. It is truly an honor and a life success to be remembered as a favorite teacher and I am forever grateful.

I also must mention a director of education that I worked for several years ago that always had an open door policy and would stop what he was doing for a solution to any problem that came his way. This person represented the organization with caring and concern for his employees. This leader let us, as his employees lead and make decisions based on the shared visions and beliefs of the organizational culture and climate. Since then, this person retired and is still a confidant and friend.

Ten years ago in 2004, professionals above me use to tell me not to lead from the heart. I listened and thought they were right. This created terrible battles with my heart because I was a teacher that led from the heart through motivation, drive and inspiration. I was not happy trying to be someone I wasn’t and this caused me to find other jobs where I could be myself. Years later I came to realize that leading from the heart was my calling as a leader. Since then, I have received awards and recognition for my leadership qualities in the classroom because I lead from the heart and people understand this. They say it’s a breath of fresh air.

What role did your organization’s leader take to shape the culture and climate?

One major thing that attracted me to the organization that I currently work for is their involvement in the community. I knew that this organization’s culture and climate was based on the celebration of the community in a wide range of settings from major sponsorship of a stadium to the availability of community scholarships, and the offering of company-paid events such as baseball or football games. Another thing that attracted me to the culture of my current workplace is the recognition of all employees by ways of monthly visits by the CEO of the organization. When a CEO calls you by name and says hello that is an honor. The CEO also added me to his LinkedIn network, as well as his Twitter page. He is approachable and recognizes talent, therefore the organization to me is people-centered and an attractive organization to work for due to the leadership.

A previous organization that I worked for as a professor had a similar style of personalized culture and climate. The CEO was a leader in the community and was very involved in the recognition and rewarding of top employees each month so much that he sponsored a day cruise for the monthly top performers in the organization, including an award ceremony and the winners’ names on the company website. The prize was so attractive that it inspired employees and leaders alike fight hard in great customer service and the delivery of the mission statement to the community. I was working on my Bachelor Degree while working at this organization as an instructor and I can honestly say that this company’s culture led me to earn my Master’s Degree and pursue my Doctorate to be this kind of leader in the long run.

As a Doctoral student, and a Professor in higher education, I have taken everything I have learned over the years and used it to lead in my classroom, in the community as a member of the city council, and in my personal/professional relationships. There is nothing more important than to recognize, inspire and motivate all the people that you meet with your involvement in the community and in yourself. This is the culture and climate of your values and beliefs and does shine through in your job, at home and through your children.

How has the leader implemented initiatives to improve or hinder the organization’s culture and climate?

As complex and challenging of a process the initiation of change can be, one thing must be remembered and that is to recognize that change cannot occur by one implementation alone, but by many implementations all focusing on one target, the culture and climate of the organization. In addition, the implementation of initiatives is only successful when it is done consistently. In reference to my current and former organization, both CEO’s offered recognition and reward for the employees who went above and beyond their calls of duty by ways of prestigious events and representation of departments and individuals.

From professional and personal experiences, I truly believe that change, whether it be from an increase in student enrollment, or the positive recognition of a professor by her/his students in a student survey, can increase the reputation and financial standings of any size organization for the better because happy and recognized employees, and students creates an organization that everyone wants to work. With this type of reputation in the community, the CEO has done their job to the highest degree.

Based upon your observation, has the culture and climate affected the productivity of the organization’s staff members?

Based on my witness, I recently attended a veteran recognition ceremony that was organized by the veterans’ services department and the CEO was one of the speakers. I was invited to this prestigious event because I elected my top 5 students in recent classes to be recognized for their hard work and honor in the classroom. When I walked into the main campus the night of the ceremony, I immediately noticed that the CEO was chatting with different groups of people. I was amongst Vice Presidents of departments, Deans of education, and leaders in the field and felt very fortunate to be in attendance. I joined a group of friends for the event and the CEO came over and thanked us for nominating our students for this event. I was beside myself with happiness and inspiration.

After the ceremony, the CEO met up again with some employees, including myself to fill out some thank you cards for the soldiers who are fighting overseas. I left this ceremony with a feeling of support, thankfulness and extreme love for my position in this company. I am sure the other attendees felt the same way too. The next day, I saw the CEO on the news and he was thanking the veterans’ for their services to the country. There was no doubt in my mind that this organization was one that focused their efforts on the recognition and reward of employees and community members’ culture and climate. Based on what I witnessed and am witnessing, all employees and students alike are on the same page.

Another sign that the climate and culture of my organization is one of recognition and trust is the amount of free reign that I have as a professor to hold my classes the way that I feel is professional and thorough. Each class has benchmarks, or objectives that must be taught and understood by my students by ways of quizzes and tests, but the rest of my classes are up to my creative energy and little bits of extra charisma in assuring that my students are prepared for their next classes and the professional settings of the workplace. I really appreciate the amount of creativity that I can put into each one of my classes and I appreciate even more that I am allowed to do it. I am positive that each and every professor that works in this organization works more productively because of the allowance of creative energy and personalization that is put into each classroom.

Another observation of employees’ productivity are within their very work areas which fosters a sense of belonging. Pictures of loved ones, awards, degrees, and colorful decorations make productivity almost always something that is work working for. This is the kind of culture that this organization sponsors and I find it an important part of success, especially at work where support is socially visible to all visitors and fellow employees.

What could be done differently and/or what was done effectively?

I honestly do not see anything in my organization that should be done differently, or more effectively. The leader’s focus in my organization and my focus are on the same wavelength and I plan to keep on representing it with services that perform above and beyond my call as a Professor in this organization. I hope that in the future, when I earn my doctorate in educational leadership that I may be able to join the upper eshilance of top leaders in this organization as a dean or a vice president of a department. I feel that my beliefs and the importance of my organization’s culture and climate will manifest further as a top leader.

References

Curtis, Mary. Journal of Business Ethics. Jan2015, Vol. 126 Issue 1, p61-63. 3p. DOI: 10.1007/s10551-013-2036-0. , Database: Business Source Complete

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2003). Encouraging the heart: A leader’s guide to rewarding and recognizing others. Boston, MA: Jossey-Bass.

Senge, P. (2010). Organizational Leadership Expert. http://youtu.be/iLFCrv7-XlI

Senge, P. (June 2010). Systems thinking in early education. http://youtu.be/q8w3Z9O7HLM

Taylor, Jeannette. Public Performance & Management Review. Sep2014, Vol. 38 Issue 1, p7-22. 16p. DOI: 10.2753/PMR1530-9576380101. , Database: Business Source Complete


The FPA-BM has as Special Advisor Dr. Michelle C. Benson, Ed.D. Dr. Michelle is a consultant, university professor and advisor to many. Dr. Michelle graduated from Northcentral University with a Doctorate in Educational Leadership. She holds a Master in Organizational Leadership/Management from Ashford University. Dr. Michelle has taught for the Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Community Health for Bachelor and Master level learners. Dr. Michelle also can motivate and lead her students to career and life changing opportunities. She is a student-centered education professional and is passionate to see success in people she encounters. Dr. Michelle has authored five journal publications and is always seeking ways to add more research to existing topics in leadership, learning and management.

Assessing Preferred Leadership Style

Assessing Preferred Leadership Style

By Dr. Michelle Benson, Ed.D., FPA-BM Special Advisor

Introduction

Leadership

As a true leader, it is important to recognize your own personality style so you can help others find theirs. This personal recognition not only helps you bloom as a leader, but is an effective communication tool to use in reaching out to team members and people you meet. Leadership is tailored around your style, and when you have a firm concept of yours and confidence within it, you are practically unstoppable. Leadership is also about setting an example. Kouzes and Posner (2003) suggest setting a positive tone bright and early by expressing how much you appreciate the contributions of others.

Another technique in communicating as a leader is to identify your true colors which is an actual psychological model that has been around for quite some time. It is true that every one of us has a different way of approaching tasks and interacting with others. By identifying your true colors and becoming familiar with other color’s conceptual relationships, communication and personal understanding is now within grip of creating a very effective work environment and happy one at that. In the following assignment, I will share my results from the leadership style assessment and that from the true colors assessment and formulate if I think that the results were consistent with my skills, how they can be a source of strength to my organization, and how I may be able to improve on the areas of deficiency.

The Leadership Legacy Assessment

The Leadership Legacy Assessment is part of a curriculum that was written for an MBA program and was used at Harvard University and other top universities. It promotes understanding on how to build and maintain long-term leaders, and teaches how to reproduce the assessment’s characteristics for personal and professional use. However, this assessment goes even deeper than the revealing of personal characteristics, but asks the test taker what kind of legacy they will leave behind. Galford and Fazio (2006) state that the following steps are essential in building your leadership legacy: first it begins by honing one’s craft and becoming a trusted advisor to others. The advisor then carries these tenets of trust into the next role that of the trusted leader. Finally, leaders cultivate their legacies, making them better and more effective leaders today.

Upon completing the Leadership Legacy Assessment, I found that my scores were accurately in sync with six types of leaders: ambassador (17 out of 25), advocate (10 out of 25), people mover (23 out of 25), truth-seeker (21 out of 25), creative builder (19 out of 25), and experienced guide (24 out of 25). Upon analyzing each of the suggested natural roles more in depth, I found that my highest scoring category was spot on. Experienced guide was described as having the ability to listen and put myself in other people’s shoes. This leadership type also clarified what people have always told me that I am, a natural therapist. I do, in fact have the ability to rationalize through other people’s problems and help them find their way back on track.

I credit a large percentage of my leadership style on this role as an experienced guide. Renato Tagiuri, emeritus professor at the Harvard School, noted that natural “experienced guides” are often found one level down from the top in organizations. They get their greatest satisfaction from helping others get through the day and helping others see the bigger picture. Again, I do credit myself with my ability to empathize and for this, experienced leader was right on the money.

The second highest score was in the category of “people mover.” These leaders are said to have talent in recognition, motivation and natural leadership. This score is also very accurate because of how my actual instincts play a part not only in decision making, but in leadership duties. Leadership is not only at work for me, but at home and in the community. I do have the ability to see things through a larger lens of potential. I generally call it magnified optimism and now I know why. Students that I taught back in 2008 still reaching out to me falls into this category of leadership because they know I care, I am a people mover. At a not so far third place leadership style, truth seeker described me as a professor in the classroom. I am able to use good judgment, have a neutral point of view and am level headed. This role is said to exhibit unfailing competence in the leader’s field, helping people to understand new rules and policies, and act to preserve the integrity of the processes therein.

Ambassador and creative builder styles were within reasonable limits. Within my scored characteristics of an ambassador, I found my ability to handle situations with grace, respect and gentle persistence. And within my scored creative builder, I found my drive, happiness and sense of entrepreneurship. According to the description of this style: strength of belief in end result + ability to tolerate the process = creative builder. I can reflect on this because I do claim persistence in finishing what I start with toleration and an end goal in mind.

The lowest score that I received in the Leadership Legacy Assessment was that of an advocate. The leadership style of an advocate tends to have greater strength in persuasion, logical thinking, and articulation. This type of leader can argue a point on two entirely different trains of thought: linear and non-linear. Advocate leaders see things in black or white only, so would often need another type of leader (like a people mover) to convince employees to buy into the ideas of an advocate leader. Clearly this leadership style is the farthest from who I am because I see things in color and don’t need to persuade people with what is right. Interestingly, I see this type of leadership in my husband and now I may be able to use this to understand his thought process. All in all, the Leadership Legacy Assessment was spot on, a breath of fresh air, and confirmation of my talents as a leader.

The True Colors Personality Assessment

This assessment is used in self-identity and its long-term solutions make better relationships, both on a professional and personal basis. A leader could use this assessment in learning how to adjust to a certain person, or group of people for that connection that some people seek for in their lives. The assessment itself required the taker to just get a “sense” of each box and score them from one being the least to four being the most. My scores were as follows: orange (11), green (13), blue (15), and gold (11). Naturally, I wondered what this all meant, so here is what I found out. Blues love to talk, are direct, and have a nurturing personality. They also value relationships, need creativity, and make decisions based on feelings. This has me all over it. Some of blue’s stressors are: being overextended, and saying “no” to socializing. Personally, I can understand the overextended factor, but cannot agree with the saying no to socializing. I am very direct and do not have a problem saying no when socializing. I credit myself with the ability to see both sides and still remain neutral. In addition, I found it very interesting that only 12-25% of test takers scored blue as their highest color spectrum.

The second color in a not so far two-point difference was green. Greens are said to be more technical, logical and questioners of authority. The stressors of a green warn scorers to beware making a decision without the facts, to not waste time on things that make no sense, and to beware of idle chat. Honestly, I can reflect with only a small part of this colors leadership traits. As part of the general descriptions of this color, I agreed that I do push myself to improve, I do require intellectual freedom, am curious, and do enjoy an intriguing and philosophical discussion. This colors traits helped me understand why I loved taking statistics so much; because I do, according to green enjoy intellectual stimulation.

I did not agree with the traits of being intellectually isolated because I love to share what I have learned as a teacher. In addition, I did not agree with the green trait that work is play. I do admit that work is fun when you love what you do, but I do not consider work play. This is yet to be discovered.  Interestingly, only 10-13% of test takers score into this colors traits. This color’s traits are ones that I will need to seek further understanding of in understanding my full leadership potential.

The last two categories: gold and orange were even in score (both 11’s) and also happen to be the top two scoring categories in test takers. Gold personalities scored in at 33-50% of test takers and orange scored in at 12-33% of test takers scores. So first, gold personalities are said to be measurers of their worth by completion, prefer orderliness and cleanliness, and are the safeguards of tradition. On the other hand, orange personalities resist commitment, thrive on crisis, like to be the center of attention, and are very competitive. To me, it is truly hard to believe that these two categories scored first and second place. Maybe I am just comfortable in my ways, but in the bigger picture, these two top scoring categories make up most of corporate America and are good to reference in reaching out and communicating with all types.

Are the results consistent with how you perceive your personality and leadership style?

My results of both the Leadership Legacy Assessment and the True Colors Personality Spectrum were spot on and confirmed what I have always thought about myself as a leader. I am a motivator at heart and at work. I thrive to help others reach their goals and have the ability to listen. I am a nurturer and from years of experience, people know that I care. I can see the bigger picture and think in color. These character traits are mine and I will be the happiest when I can use them to lead and represent a larger organization or position with more responsibility once I earn my Doctorate.

How can your style and personality be sources of strength to the organization?

The very first thing that I thought of when contemplating this question were my scores on the True Colors Personality Spectrum Assessment. I consider myself a very unique individual with unique abilities that are only accountable for 10-25% of the True Colors test takers. I feel very strongly about my leadership abilities and have put myself on the spot to test my personal theories on my ability to lead and react. I have found that when I am true to myself and my natural abilities, that my career grows in an upward direction. This is very true on my resume and as a heart-felt accomplishment. I completely believe that I am a strength to my organization’s mission and values and in the future it would be in my organization’s best interest to promote my abilities to a position where I can train others to learn my styles and act upon them to help others.

How can you improve upon the deficiencies depicted in the Leadership Legacy Assessment?

To answer this question fully, I will rely on the lowest scored leadership style “advocate” and try to determine how I can make improvements. According to the details of the advocate, they tend to be relentless, or in other words: harsh, severe and strict. In further description of this leadership style, advocates lead this way because of their survival through the roughest of waters, which is sort of motivating. Knowing this, I may be able to understand this type of leader more, but to work on trying to become this type of leader would take a leap of faith outside of myself. So, I will work on trying to be more articulate, rational, logical, and persuasive; all while staying true to myself and my natural abilities.

References

Dickey, D. (2014). Hue are you? True colors personality spectrum. Texas A & M Health Science Center. Retrieved from: http://www.medicine.tamhsc.edu/resource-team/docs/2014-meetings/hueareyouprezi090614.pdf

Discovering Our Personality Style through TRUE COLORS
Attachment: True Colors Personality Test.pdf

Galford, R.M. & Fazio, R. (2006) Your Leadership Legacy: Why looking toward the future will make you a better leader today. Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved from: www.yourleadershiplegacy.com/

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2003). Encouraging the heart: A leader’s guide to rewarding and recognizing others. Boston, MA: Jossey-Bass.

Leadership Legacy Assessment. Retrieved from: http://www.yourleadershiplegacy.com/assessment/assessment.php


The FPA-BM has as Special Advisor Dr. Michelle C. Benson, Ed.D. Dr. Michelle is a consultant, university professor and advisor to many. Dr. Michelle graduated from Northcentral University with a Doctorate in Educational Leadership. She holds a Master in Organizational Leadership/Management from Ashford University. Dr. Michelle has taught for the Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Community Health for Bachelor and Master level learners. Dr. Michelle also can motivate and lead her students to career and life changing opportunities. She is a student-centered education professional and is passionate to see success in people she encounters. Dr. Michelle has authored five journal publications and is always seeking ways to add more research to existing topics in leadership, learning and management.

 

Examining Time Management

Examining Time Management

By Dr. Michelle Benson, Ed.D., FPA-BM Special Advisor

Introduction

As an educational leader, my primary goal is to manage time; while in balance of all tasks that surround my organizational responsibilities. Time management ties into each one of Covey’s seven habits of highly effective people. First habit- being proactive, requires a clear attention to time management due to the habitual values of the leader to complete a task on time and with full potential. Second habit- to begin with an end in mind, requires the leader to “rescript” the values from the first habit.

Within this valuable habit, the leader can make conscious decisions that reflect professional values and roles which again ties into the first habit. Third habit- putting first things first, assesses personal time management. By gaining control of time, a leader can see how the most important tasks in quadrant one relate to the vision and mission of your organization. Fourth habit- thinking win-win, points out that we cannot do everything ourselves, but must rely on team members to get the job done. The educational leader in this habit is never losing focus of the goals or strategies that are the most important, acting as the motivator to their team and most importantly, establishing meaningful and professional relationships with team members and other leaders.

Fifth habit- seeking first to understand, then to be understood, demonstrates that the leader can make a decision based on knowledge that is personally understood, so further delegation can be followed through in managing time to a tee. Sixth habit- synergizing is said by Covey (n.d.) to be when two or more people work together to understand something, they can create this phenomenon. Leadership from the heart requires the leader to allow all members of the team to benefit from managing tasks; from time management to the creative input to a business solution.

Finally, habit seven- sharpening the saw keeps the educational leader in check; such as in quadrant two, in a constant long term area to improve goals and strategies for high quality and professional leadership. Krogue (2013) emphasizes Covey’s system by stating that time management is one skill universal to all disciplines of business and life.

In my professional career, a majority of my time does not involve student interaction. Still, I must prioritize my time to make sure that when my students are present that they are influenced to succeed and achieve at high productive levels. It is said that how a manager manages their time defines them as a leader. I could not agree more because time management is the key to comfortable delegation of tasks and full thought out decisions.

This assignment asks the writer to identify and analyze the actions and results of each quadrant of Covey’s Time Management Matrix; breaking down further what is most urgent and what is not urgent. Further discussion of the elements in each section will point out how they could be managed more effectively and efficiently. In addition, personal goals will be shared from each quadrant with an analysis of how they can be moved from one quadrant to another in gaining a deeper sense of time management with the use of Covey’s Time Management Matrix.

Covey’s Time Management Matrix

Quadrant 1: Important/Urgent

This is the quadrant where immediate and important deadlines are managed as a necessity. Items such as: immediate attention to crisis and problems, last-minute meetings at work, the sometimes unavoidable cramming of projects, and rushing to meet a deadline are all solid examples of important and urgent items that would go into this quadrant. According to Dr. Covey, 90% of people’s time is spent in this category (Ulacia, 2009).

In adding a little humor, popular bloggist- Horning (2014) adds that individuals who live in Quadrant I are often consumed with problems all day every day and only find peace in escaping to Quadrant IV. These individuals can be characterized as crisis mangers, problem-minded people, and deadline-driven producers. The items that I, personally placed in my matrix in this quadrant were the paying of monthly bills/rent/mortgage, doctor appointments for family/immunizations, helping children with homework, due dates for college assignments, going to church every Sunday, weekly lesson plans/class work/grading/attendance for job, and preparing meals for family. Most of the items listed are what I felt are the most important and urgent according to my values and professionalism to take care of my family and personal needs before my professional ones.

Quadrant 2: Important/Not Urgent

This quadrant is one of quality and personal leadership styles in the development of long-term tactful strategies. Covey (n.d.) states that this quadrant should be one to expand upon and use for the planning and focus of long-term achievable goals. Items in this quadrant would include the ever important planning and prep time for quadrant one, essential break times, time to get the job done within reasonable limits, and constant time for improvement would fit nicely into this quadrant.

On the other hand, Dr. Covey says that if you live in Quadrant II, “Your effectiveness would increase dramatically. Your crises and problems would shrink to manageable proportions because you would be thinking ahead, working on the roots” (Ulacia, 2009). The items in my personal matrix of quadrant two include: focus on long-term goals, strategies, vision and mission of my career and organization, pre-work/reading and understanding of my Dissertation planning, a positive mental/spiritual/physical outlook towards my Doctorate, and a constant seeking to improve my personal time management methods.

Quadrant 3: Not Important/Urgent

This quadrant is said to be one of deception because of the time wasting items. In this quadrant, we see things like time pressured distractions, avoidable phone calls or interruptions, unnecessary reports and even unnecessary meetings. This quadrant should be avoided by all costs because most of the items in this quadrant can be managed in quadrants one and two before they become a hindrance in this quadrant. In the results portion of the prefilled quadrants, the bulleted items are demonstrating what can happen to the time manager if most attention is devoted to it. The time manager may begin to see goals as worthless, may feel victimized and begin to find themselves doubting their relationships. This is not where an educational leader needs to be, nor any of their followers.

Therefore, I stand behind my theory of this quadrant that it is a time waster and I want nothing to do with it. I will manage what is important in quads one and two before they become urgent. The items that I, personally filled into this quadrant were: time to look at junk mail, longer than expected lunch breaks, an open office/open door policy for team members to ask questions freely, or events such as a job fair, study time while at work to catch up, or a call that just cannot wait any longer to take.

Quadrant 4: Not Important/Not Urgent

This quadrant yields little value to an educational leader because here, items such as junk mail, excessive breaks, idle chit-chat, and time wasters will just delay the inevitable. This quadrant should also be avoided at all costs. According to the results page, bulleted items are showing total irresponsibility, being fired from jobs and using that for entitlement, and the not so shocking dependability on the basics; whereabouts they are personal responsibilities otherwise.

This is a dangerous quadrant even for me to consider, but here are the items that I listed in this category: time wasting activities that get no work done, playing video games while work should have been done, going to see a movie while work needs to be done, and procrastination, in general. All listed items here can be planned for other quadrants, preferably quads one and two. As an educational leader, I need to be a role model of time management and it needs to match my personal values, as I believe it does.

My Theory of Time Management as an Effective Leader

Time management applies to everything in life that is mental, spiritual and physical. Whether considering a child’s thoughts of time management, a college students, or a CEO’s proven style of management, it all comes down to the hours in a day, a sense of priority and personal time for leisure, or relaxing time. All three factors (hours, priority, and leisure) play a major part in a time management plan that will balance out everything that is important in a day. Boniwell, et al (2014) points out that current research shows that having a balanced time perspective improves well-being and productivity on many levels: work-related, social and personal. Yanping and Soman (2014) add clearly that the key step in getting things done is to get started. The use of Covey’s time management matrix is a smart start. It demonstrated what is important and to use the completion of its importance before it became an urgent undertaking. I already have a current trust in Franklin Covey products such as the Day Planner, so it was fun and easy to work with this matrix.

Summary

In wrapping up this assignment, educational leaders need to remember that the development of skills in time management are a journey and very seldom will a professional become a time management genius right out of the ring. Students and professionals need to use time management daily to become effective at it. It’s one thing to learn it and know it, but you have to use it to own it. As a professional in my field, I can say that I own time management. My priorities are straight and I generally still have time to assist a friend or a colleague in their attempts to catch up. Sometimes my friends ask me how I find enough time in the day to do everything that I do. I tell them that I plan for it.

References

Boniwell, Ilona; Osin, Evgeny; Sircova, Anna. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching & Mentoring. Aug2014, Vol. 12 Issue 2, p24-40. 17p. 1 Chart. , Database: Business Source Complete

Covey’s Time Management Matrix. Retrieved from: http://www.brefigroup.co.uk/acrobat/quadrnts.pdf

Covey, S. R. (n.d.) 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Retrieved from:
http://inspiro.weebly.com/uploads/2/0/8/8/2088675/covey_stephen_-_the_seven_habits_of_highly_effective_people.pdf

Horning, H. (2014) Time Management Matrix: Urgent vs. Important-Living in Box Two. Retrieved from: http://www.archerpoint.com>blogs>HannahHorning’sBlog

Krogue, K. (2013) Level 5 Time Management: Beyond Steven R. Covey and Ben Franklin. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/…/level-5-time-management-beyond-steven-c

Ulacia, D. (2009) Are You Working on the Wrong Things? Franklin Covey-Franklin Planner Co. Retrieved from: http://www.getorganized.fcorgp.com/content/are-you-working-wrong-things

Yanping, T; Soman, DILIP. Journal of Consumer Research. Oct2014, Vol. 41 Issue 3, p810-822. 13p. 1 Diagram, 1 Chart, 3 Graphs. , Database: Business Source Complete


The FPA-BM has as Special Advisor Dr. Michelle C. Benson, Ed.D. Dr. Michelle is a consultant, university professor and advisor to many. Dr. Michelle graduated from Northcentral University with a Doctorate in Educational Leadership. She holds a Master in Organizational Leadership/Management from Ashford University. Dr. Michelle has taught for the Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Community Health for Bachelor and Master level learners. Dr. Michelle also can motivate and lead her students to career and life changing opportunities. She is a student-centered education professional and is passionate to see success in people she encounters. Dr. Michelle has authored five journal publications and is always seeking ways to add more research to existing topics in leadership, learning and management.

Developing a Shared Vision

Developing a Shared Vision

by Dr John Peterson, PhD, FPA-BM Chairman of the Board

Shared vision is the idea expressed of a common dream or goal of individuals in an organization, inspired into working to achieve this vision (Harris, n.d.). This paper elucidates on the concept of shared vision. This paper emphasizes the connection between leadership and shared vision; as the famous designer Ralph Lauren allegedly said, “A leader has the vision and conviction that a dream can be achieved. He inspires the power and energy to get it done.”

In history, we bear witness to the importance of strong leadership molding a nation’s shared vision, from Abraham Lincoln to John Kennedy; and in society, we also find leaders having an impact on the changes of a generation, as the popular musical group The Beatles did.

According to Maxwell (1998), to develop a shared vision is fundamental that cause and opportunity be in place. There is no doubt that shared vision is fruit of strong leadership. Maxwell (1998) listed 21 indisputable laws of leadership, and amongst these laws, the author claimed that the true measure of leadership is influence.

Leaders can exercise this influence when sharing a vision with others. It is important that stakeholders’ empowerment shape a shared vision. As Maxwell (1998) wrote, “Only secure leaders give power to others” (p. xi). Sharing the same idea, Francis (2002) stated that, there is an increasing recognition among leaders, in which building and integrating commitment among all stakeholders maximizes the long-term success of an organization.

According to Leavitt (2005), there is a three-part model for the modern leadership process, as shown on the following Table.

Table – Leavitt’s three-part model of the managing/leading process

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Pathfinding (sic)

Problem solving

Implementing

Relates to the vision, values, and sense of purpose

Relates to the ability to think in an orderly, systematic, logic way

Relates to the effectiveness in getting things done with and through people

Note: Source: Adapted from Leavitt (2005, pp. 144-159).

English (2008) elucidated that there is a subtle difference between managers and true leaders, by explaining that managers have a duty of loyalty to an organization, and true leaders have an inquisitive mind that transcends the organization; however, they both are stakeholders of a shared vision; they both are the social assets developing a shared vision.

Green (2009) wrote that school leaders manage the organizational system (the school) to achieve established goals. In order to achieve effective leadership, the leader has to acquire knowledge and understanding of the needs, beliefs and values of individuals and groups on the organization, and as a result, leaders are required to operate with a shared vision and compelling mission. Collaboration is essential to the leader and school’s success.

To develop a shared vision a leader has to sacrifice his or her immediate self-interest. Plato (as cited in Ciulla, 2004) wrote that if a leader were a just person, leadership would take a toll on him or her. Plato (as cited in Ciulla, 2004) explained that the only reason a person will take a leadership role is out of fear of punishment. “Now the greatest punishment, if one is not willing to rule, is to be ruled by someone worse than oneself. And I think it is fear of this that makes decent people rule when they do” (Ciulla, 2004, p. 316).

It is very interesting to observe that the fundamental role of a leader when developing a shared vision is one of altruistic motives. A true leader will look after the interests of others as a moral quality of his or her leadership. In addition, as English (2008) pointed out, a leader who is doing his or her job is someone who is reflecting the aspiration of the social network to which he or she belongs to make a difference.

Drucker (2007) wisely indicated that an organization has to be transparent: “People have to know and have to understand the organization structure they are supposed to work in. This sounds obvious – but it is far too often violated in most institutions (even in military)” (p. 10). Drucker (2007) also stated that someone in the organization must have the authority to make the final decision in a given area, have the command in a moment of crisis, and have authority commensurate with responsibility. Drucker’s words fit the concepts of a shared vision developed with the authority of leadership, an ethical and altruistic authority.

Through the years, there has been many ways to define and conceptualize leadership. The common understanding about leadership is that leadership is a process that assists groups of individuals in the direction of obtaining their goals (Northouse, 2010).

Leadership and Shared Vision

Leaders float above mediocrity. They have an unobstructed view from above the crowd. However, true leaders stay grounded by ties with trusted people; this connection with a few selected followers is necessary in order for leaders to avoid getting lost on visions that become unrealistic. Leaders must see the overall map, the vast territory, to select the best path to lead the people trusting in him or her.

Tracy (2010) stated that vision is the most important single quality of leadership. The qualities of a leader, having a clear vision of where they are going and what they are trying to accomplish, change he or she from a “transactional manager into a transformational leader” (Tracy, 2010, p. 15). A manager will get the job done; a true leader will strike into the emotion of his or her followers.

Furthermore, as Price and Ritcheske (2001) explained, true leaders seek power and control in order to set directions, philosophy, and strategy. For true leaders a healthy amount of individuality is necessary for them to control their own destiny first. Leaders should understand their core values of accountability, integrity, and reliability if they wish to succeed in their destiny.

Developing a Shared Vision

A shared vision is component of an organization’s culture, and as Pottruck (2002) explained, culture transforms change to progress, by providing the foundation of “what does not change to allow everything to change rapidly” (p. 52). In addition, as claimed by Pottruck (2002), culture is the reason we work together. This is a significant concept for a shared vision, because it implies that the alignment established by working together is an effective way to achieve our goals on a fast-paced globalized world.

An organization to prosper has to share a vision that stimulates people to want to succeed. This vision will stimulate people to learn and to excel at their jobs, not because of an obligation, but because they want to. It is fundamental for a leader to understand that a shared vision will bring people together to work on a common goal, which all stakeholders have personally invested in creating (Oosterwal, 2010).

Although an organization’s mission statement is crucial to the success of its goals and objectives, a shared vision has to go beyond the mission statement. A shared vision has to concern values, vision, mission, purpose, and goals. The problem with leaders when they fail to translate their personal vision to a shared vision is the lack of discipline. According to Oosterwal (2010), principles and guiding practices are absent when a group shares a vision.

Oosterwal (2010) suggested that the art of building a shared vision requires establishing a common perspective of the current situation, then involves the skill of “unearthing shared ‘pictures of the future’” (Oosterwal, 2010, p. 56); however, leaders should master the ability to recognize it is counterproductive to dictate a personal vision, no matter how genuine it may be.

Shared vision will propagate on an organization because of the nature of human beings to reinforce commitment, enthusiasm, and clarity. By discussing a shared vision people will learn more about it, allowing additional refinement of the vision and clarifying it even further (Oosterwal, 2010). As the cycle continues, the clear the vision becomes more it will propagate.

Shared Vision and Communication

Leaders will share their vision; however, their vision is a complex one. It is easier for a true leader to share a vision with other leaders, who also float at his or her height and can understand better what is seem. The average people, the people grounded on earth, the one that only can visualize their immediate surroundings, are limited on the understanding of the greater panoramic vision leaders have. It is the leader’s job to translate this vision to the common people. That is way communication skills are fundamental on a true leader, as it is also the ability to connect with the reality of all people.

Communicating a shared vision is crucial to its understanding among followers. The most strong communication tool is language. “Language is a system of shared symbols; it includes speech, written characters, numeral symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions” (Witt, 2011, p. 54). True leaders, when implementing a shared vision, understand that language, as communication, provides the foundation of a common culture because it facilitates day-to-day exchanges with others, making collective action possible (Witt, 2011)

Shared Vision and Ethics

There should be a strong concern with ethics when developing a shared vision. Leaders have the greatest influence in developing a shared vision, and consequently, a major responsibility on applying ethical principles to it. According to Bagley and Savage (2006), compliance with the law is the foundation for effective and responsible decision-making action. Bagley and Savage (2006) explained that leaders should ask themselves if an action is legal, and “if an action is not in accordance with the letter and spirit of the law, then, regardless of the likely effect on shareholder value, the action should not be taken” (Bagley & Savage, 2006, p. 14). This principle of ethical approach for a shared vision is crucial on the long-term success of its ideals and goals.

Leaders and Shared Vision in the Coming Years

Bob Johansen, of the Institute for the Future (IFTF), an independent, nonprofit think tank, claimed that in a world of increasing volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity, (what he called VUCA), leaders must learn new skills in order to make a better future. Moreover, key among those new skills, Johansen identified, is the ability to “see through messes and contradictions” to a future that others cannot yet see (as cited by Nichols, 2010, para. 2).

According to Nichols (2010), leadership is about encouraging and inspiring others to envision the future by “painting a picture” (para. 2) of exciting possibilities. “People don’t often admit that they are an artist or extremely creative. Yet, these talents are demonstrated by highly effective leaders in their everyday activities when they see through messes and contradictions, painting a picture that excites and inspires” (Nichols, 2010, para. 2).

Leaders in coming years will have to be competent, confident, and their individual followers as strong as well. Leaders will be more involved in social changes, and in social networking through technology.

Conclusion

A shared vision is fruit of a collaborative effort between stakeholders of its dreams and objectives, led by a truly ethical leader who sees other people’s interests as his or her own. A shared vision is fundamental on the success of an enterprise, especially an educational organization where a leader has so many individuals and groups to attend to in a transparent and altruistic manner.

References

Bagley, C. E., & Savage, D. W. (2006). Managers and the legal environment: Strategies for the 21st century (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education.

Ciulla, J. (2004). Ethics and leadership effectiveness. In J. Antonakis, A. T. Clanciolo, & R. T. Sternberg (Eds.), The nature of leadership (pp. 302-327). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Drucker, P. (2007). Management challenges for the 21st century. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. (Original work published 1999).

English, F. W. (2008). The art of educational leadership: Balancing performance and accountability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Francis, J. S. (2002). The stakeholder’s view. In M. Ashby & S. Miles (Eds.), Leaders talk leadership: Top executives speak their minds (pp. 171-208). New York, NY: OxfordUniversity Press.

Green, R. L. (2009). Practicing the art of leadership: A problem-based approach to implementing the ISLLC standards (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Harris, C. (n.d.). Shared visions in organizations. Pyramid ODI . Retrieved from http://www.pyramidodi.com/papers/vision.pdf

Leavitt, H. J. (2005). Top down: Why hierarchies are here to stay and how to manage them effectively. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Maxwell, J. C. (1998). The 21 irrefutable laws of leadership: Follow them and people will follow you. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

Nichols, J. (2010, July). Back to the future [Article]. Retrieved from Leadership Challenge by John Wiley, & Sons Web site: http://www.leadershipchallenge.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-420466.html

Northouse, P. G. (2010). Leadership: Theory and practice (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Oosterwal, D. (2010). The lean machine: how Harley-Davidson drove top-line growth and profitability with revolutionary lean product development. New York, NY: American Management Association.

Pottruck, D.S. (2002). Leading by creating a values-based culture and inspiring commitment. In M. Ashby & S. Miles (Eds.), Leaders talk leadership: Top executives speak their minds (pp. 50-55). New York, NY: OxfordUniversity Press.

Price, B., & Ritcheske, G. (2001). True leaders: How exceptional CEOs and Presidents make a difference by building people and profit. Chicago, IL: Dearborn.

Tracy, B. (2010). How the best leaders lead: Proven secrets to getting the most out of yourself and others. New York, NY: American Management Association.

Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21 century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

Witt, J. (2011). SOC 2011. New York: McGraw-Hill.


The FPA-BM has as Chairman of the Board Dr. John Peterson, Ph.D. A leading education specialist for over 15 years, Dr. John Peterson is a published author and the creator and implementer of several undergraduate and graduate programs. Emphasizing practical access to learning methodologies, Dr. Peterson has developed curricula focused on online and face-to-face training, optimizing new technologies for the benefit of his students’ achievements in real-world careers. In addition, Dr. Peterson is an experienced consultant to the requirements of the Florida Department of Education regarding the licensing and compliance of new institutions.

Cooperative Learning

Cooperative Learning

By Dr Nilsa Fleury, Ed.D., FPA-BM Director of Education

Cooperative Learning (CL) is an instructional strategy that contributes to social integration through collaboration and integration of effective small-groups (Bennett & Rolheiser, 2008). The most complex of CL are strategies and the simpler ones are tactics (Bennett & Rolheiser, 2008). Examples of CL strategies are jigsaw, group investigation, team analysis, and academic controversy. Next, think-pair-share, inside outside circles, and the three-step interview are examples of tactics in CL. According to Sharan (2010), CL is “a pedagogy that generates a diversified body of methods of instruction which organize students ‘to work in groups toward a common goal or outcome, or share a common problem or task in such a way that they can succeeded in complete the work through behavior that demonstrates interdependence, while holding individual contributions and efforts accountable”’ (p. 4).

Marzano (2003) said that structured tasks or effective transfer of knowledge are required by the process of learning. Thus, CL groups are small, structured, and heterogeneous. Certainly, students rely on each other to complete the tasks. In addition, students have accountability, and they promote face-to face interaction in a small group. Dyson, Lynehan, and Hastie (2010) described in their research the instructional ecology of CL in elementary physical education classes and identified four main categories: (a) organization and management of student; (b) roles; (c) skill development; and (d) strategizing. Dyson et al. (2010) defined   CL as “an instructional model in which students work together in small, structured, heterogeneous groups to complete group tasks” (p. 113). The definition from Dyson et al. (2010) reinforced the idea of the other authors cited before.

The small groups facilitate the communication between the individuals. In a Canadian elementary school Dyson et al.(2010) wrote that the teacher believed that CL improve students motor skills, developed social skills, helped them work together as a team, and helped others to improve their skills. Interpersonal and small group skills are developed through the tasks that include listening, shared decision making, taking responsibility, giving and receiving feedback, and encouraging each other (Dyson, Linehan, and Hastie, 2010). The process of creating and reorganizing meanings represent the learning process. Effective CL has four steps to follow described by Johnson and Johnson (in Nan & Lee, 2010) or effective CL: (1) specifying the instructional objectives; (2) making pre-instructional decisions; (3) structuring the learning task and positive interdependence; and (4) monitoring and intervening.

Interpersonal Intelligence

The most powerful predictor of whether or not an individual will be successful in life is interpersonal intelligence that CL approach in classroom and school environments (Bennett & Rolheiser, 2008). Nam and Lee (2010) defined interpersonal intelligence as “the ability to understand others’ emotions, belief, and thought” (p. 25).  Learner’s characteristics such as cognitive aspects- intelligence and  learning styles- and affective aspects–attitudes, values, and motivation-are important to active and to interact among the group members (Nam & Lee, 2010). Mutual help and trust are considered positive interdependence and individual accountability found in CL activities (Nam & Lee, 2010). Interpersonal intelligence encompasses the ability to approach personal issues and opinions of others. Students with higher interpersonal intelligence show positive attitudes in a web-based learning environment. Therefore, Nam and Lee (2010) found that in CL teachers should consider the level of students’ interpersonal intelligence.

Effective Group Work

Johnson and Johnson in 1989 (Goodell, Cooke, & Ash) defined the five conditions of a successful CL: (a) positive interdependence; (b) individual accountability; (c) promotive interaction; (d) interpersonal skills; and (e) group processing. Positive interdependence occurs when individuals working together for success; individual accountability when students contributions are necessary to the group and the responsibility for his/her own learning; promotive interaction through the students working together to teach and learn from each other; interpersonal or social skills are used through the acts to help everyone in a group and for everyone to get along; and group processing access the group’s efforts  in terms of their academic performance and collaborative interaction. The group works together with all five conditions in a successful CL. Johnson and Johnson (2009) described conditions for constructive competition, which include “completing the task effectively and perceive one’s participation as being personally worldwide” (p. 370). In some cases, competitiveness is considered positive and some cases negative, which relate to psychological health such as conditional self-esteem and egocentrism. Further, CL has been used for different teachers, subjects, level, cultures, and countries in with effectiveness in almost taken for granted (Johnson & Johnson 2009).

Benefits of CL

According to Shimazoe and Aldrich (2010), CL brings benefits for students in the following areas: (a) promotes deep learning; (b) helps earn high grades; (c) teaches social skills and civic values; (d) teaches higher order thinking skills; (e) promotes personal growth; and (f) develops personal growth. Instructors also get benefits from CL such as giving more time to reflect on how well students are learning and decreasing grade loads. Students and instructors can benefit from CL to express their concerns, problems, and opinions and maintain a positive climate and sense of community. Creating a strong sense of team identity; the actions of helping, encouraging, and supporting are beneficial in engaging the students (Hsiung, 2010). Students who study cooperatively have benefits in their learning performance. CL helps students’ behavior and several studies show that students’ characteristics such as ethnicity and prior knowledge influence their behavior and learning gains (Oortwijn, Boekaerts, Vedder, & Strijbos, 2008).

 Strategies of Communication and Using Cloud Computing

Solomon, Heckendom, and Souble (2012) stated that communication is a critical condition to coordinate an individual’s actions; it must be sure that the right information is exchange between individuals at the same time. The communication network plays a critical role and has a significant effect on the success of the process. The teacher needs to assure that the students clearly understand the clearly the task and communicate effectively with each other. Cloud computing technologies enhance the instructional strategies predicted on constructivism and CL (Denton, 2012). As an example Google Docs and Microsoft Office presented this application like file sharing and online publishing that are supporting the Department of Education through the classrooms.

In this case, students can share files and add information to solve the problem. CL is aligned to cloud technologies, where individuals work together to accomplish the goal. This effectiveness of CL in classrooms has being proven by researchers. Denton (2012) describes some strategies to apply cloud computing: ( a) group projects; (b) peer assessment; (c) student constructed presentations; (d) simultaneous class discussions;(e) collaborate reflection; (f) assisting writing; (g) learning illustrated; (h) class inventory; (i) collaborative rubric construction; and  (j) website publishing. Certainly, technology has made a lot of contribution to education engaging in different subjects.

Conclusion

CL is a great instructional strategy that enhances the performance of students in classroom settings. It contributes to social, intellectual, and personal individuals’ growth. Each type of CL has methods to develop accountability and trust between the members to accomplish their goals. Adding interpersonal intelligence to perceive others feelings, thoughts, and contributions is a significant aspect to develop a successful CL. Positive results, from students using CL, motivate teachers to use this strategy to develop tasks inside the classroom. Communication is a key to coordinate teams and make the members understand each other   the task to be developed. In addition, cloud computing has been applied to help teachers, motivate teams, and engage students in activities that share the technological platform.

References

Bennett, G. & Rolheiser (2001). Beyond Monet: The artful science of instructional integration. Toronto, Ontario: Bookation, Inc.

Denton, D. W. (2012). Enhancing instruction through constructivism, CL, and cloud computing. TechTrends, 56(4), pp. 34-41

Dyson, B. P., Linehan, N. R., & Hastie, P. A. (2010). The ecology of CL in elementary physical education classes. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29, pp. 113-130.

Goodell, S. L., Cooke, N. K., & Ash, S. L. (2012). CL through in-class team work: An approach to classroom instruction in a life cycle nutrition course. NACTA Journal, pp. 68-75.

Hsiung, C. M. (2010). Identification of dysfunctional CL teams based on student’s academic achievement. Journal of Engineering Education, pp. 45-54.

Johnson, D. W., & Jonhson, R. T. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and CL. Educational Researcher, 38 (5), pp. 365-379. doi: 10.3102/0013189×09339057

Marzano, R. J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexander, VA: ASCD.

Nam, C. W., & Lee, H. (2010). The relationship between student’s interpersonal intelligence and their attitudes toward CL in a web-based environment, 17 (2), pp. 23-35.

Oortwijn, M. B., Boekaerts, M., Vedder, P., & Strijbos, J. W. (2008). Helping behavior during CL and learning gains. The role of the teacher and of pupils’ prior knowledge and ethnic background. Learning and Instruction, 18, pp.146-159.

Sharan, Y. (2010). CL for academic and social gains: Valued pedagogy, problematic practice. European Journal of Education, 45(2), pp. 300-313. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3435.2010.01430.x

Shimazoe, J. & Aldrich, H.  (2010). Group work can be gratifying: Understanding & overcoming resistance to CL. College Teaching, 58, pp. 52-57. doi: 10.1080/87567550903418594

Solomon, M., Heckendorn, R., & Soule T. (2012). A comparison of communication strategies in CL. The fourteenth international conference on genetic and evolutionary computation.GECCo’12. Retrieved from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2330163.2330185


The FPA-BM has as Director of Education Dr. Nilsa Fleury, Ed.D. Dr. Nilsa, is a consultant, university professor and information analyst. Dr. Nilsa graduated in Business Administration from FACE – UFMG, postgraduate in Industrial Economics – UFMG, Specialization in Information Systems by UNA – Cepederh. She holds a Master in Business Science and Doctorate in Education, concentration in Leadership at Nova Southeastern University. She worked as a consultant for the government and private sector in Brazil, USA and Canada. In addition, Dr. Nilsa taught business in some universities in Brazil. She teaches Business and Education courses for undergraduate and graduate courses in the USA.

 

Six theories of management and their ideal manager

Six theories of management and their ideal manager

By Dr Nilsa Fleury, DeD, FPA-BM Director of Education

Understanding better the concepts of management and its theories evolution, managers and leaders can help their organizations to grow with effectiveness, innovation, and success. Frederic W. Taylor (1865-1915) developed the techniques for scientific management, in which “the systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency” (Jones & George, 2008, p. 47). It was the way to create the most efficient division of labor on the productive process. The ideal manager in this theory was a controller as Henry Ford with his simplification process of production in his organization. On the other hand, Henry Fayol (1841-1925) developed 14 principles of management such as authority and responsibility, unity of command, line of authority, centralizations, unity of direction, equity, order, initiative, discipline, initiative, remuneration of personnel, stability of tenure of personnel, subordination of individual interests to the common interest, and esprit of corps (Jones & George, 2008). Based in these principles emerged the four basic functions of managers such as plan, control, organize, and command. There are still essential for any survived organization. At the same time, Max Weber (1864-1920) developed the principles of bureaucracy to help Germany industrial manager process and ensure their efficiency and effectiveness (Jones & George, 2008).

The bureaucracy should have the principals that the manager has the formal authority from his/her  position inside the organization; performance hold the positions , not social or personal contacts; each position, its tasks, and its relationships inside the organizations should be clearly specify; authority can be exercised effectively when positions are arranged hierarchically inside the organization; and managers must create rules, procedures, and norms to control behavior within an organization. Next, the study of behavioral management, known as human relations school, it was a study developed by Americans theorists, who wanted to show how the managers needed to behavior to motivate their employees to better perform and to be achieved and committed to the organizations goals (Jones & George, 2008). The experience at the Western Electric Company, called the Hawthorne studies,  investigated the performance of the workers affected by the level of lighting illumination, and found that “each manager’s personal behavior or leadership approach can affect performance” (Jones & George, 2008, p.64). This study demonstrated how feelings, thoughts, and behavior of the team and managers affect job performance.

After the World War II, Douglas McGregor developed two sets of assumptions called theory X and theory Y, in which the attitudes of the workers influence the managers’ behavior. According to theory X, assumptions were made that “the worker is lazy, dislikes work, and will try to do a little possible” (Jones & Gorge, 2008, p. 65). Contrary, theory Y assumes that workers are not lazy, does not dislike work, managers create opportunities for workers to exercise self-direction and take initiate, and they also will do what is good for the organization.  Hewlett-Packard (HP) was founded based on principals of Theory Y that also reflected the approach of Henri Fayol. Furthermore, Jones and George (2008) described the organizational environment theory “the set of forces and conditions that operate beyond on organization’s boundaries but affect a manager’s ability to acquire and utilize resources” (p. 69). In other words, the organization boundaries affect the manager’s ability to acquire and utilize resources to decision-making (Jones & George, 2008).

Tom Burns and G. M. Stalker at Britain and Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch in the United States in 1960 developed the contingency theory, which had the idea that the organizational structures and control systems managers depend of the external environment characteristics (Jones & George, 2008). However, organizations in a stable environment choose the mechanistic structure and organizations in changing environment choose an organic structure (Jones & George, 2008).  Describing the types of the management theories is important to make better decisions and choose the best way to behavior as a manager or leader within organizations. Through the competing values framework (Osland & Turner, 2011) you can better understand the models, its positive and negative side, and what means in each theory. The positive and negative zones also help to understand how to work with the skills and master the process of management. Obviously, the human commitment is an important model to follow by the leader, although others factors are important to balance such as decision-making, innovation and adaptation when is necessary. The leadership style can be adapted and integrated to the type organization and become effective and successful on its performance.

References:

Jones, G. R, & George, J. M. (2008). The evolution of management thought. In a J. E. Bienal (Ed.). Contemporary management (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin Companies, Inc.

Osland, J. S., & Turner, M. E. (2011). Theories of managing people. In a S. Yagan (Ed.). The organizational behavior reader (9th. ed.). Upper Saddle River: NJ: Person Education Inc., Prentice Hall.


The FPA-BM has as Director of Education Dr. Nilsa Fleury, Ed.D. Dr. Nilsa, is a consultant, university professor and information analyst. Dr. Nilsa graduated in Business Administration from FACE – UFMG, postgraduate in Industrial Economics – UFMG, Specialization in Information Systems by UNA – Cepederh. She holds a Master in Business Science and Doctorate in Education, concentration in Leadership at Nova Southeastern University. She worked as a consultant for the government and private sector in Brazil, USA and Canada. In addition, Dr. Nilsa taught business in some universities in Brazil. She teaches Business and Education courses for undergraduate and graduate courses in the USA.

Professional Development Training: A Win for the Entire Team

Professional development training is overlooked and underappreciated as an employee retention and recruitment tool. In fact, it’s often one of the first things to go when budgets get cut. Here are some reasons why investing in the growth and development of employees is a smart idea that is evergreen.

Offering professional development training programs allows employees to perform better and prepares them for positions of greater responsibility. But it can also help employers attract top job candidates, retain their best workers and identify future leaders. Moreover, ongoing professional development is very appealing to many employees today who are looking to keep their skills relevant in a rapidly changing world.

Investing in each of your workers is beneficial to the whole organization and can boost the bottom line. Following are six rewards you can realize if you support or provide professional development training initiatives:

1. You increase the collective knowledge of your team

Encouraging your employees to train in relevant subjects and applications — an advanced course in a software program they use daily, for example — can have an immediate effect on productivity. Professional development can also help raise overall staff expertise when employees with vastly different backgrounds and levels of experience are encouraged to share information.

Idea: Consider supporting continuing education by offering tuition reimbursement or covering the costs associated with pursuing industry certifications. Paying for employees to take a course offered by a local university or technical school can be a simple but invaluable way to help them grow their skills. You also might invest in a group membership to an e-learning training site, or simply allow employees to view educational webinars during working hours.

2. You boost employees’ job satisfaction

When staff members can do their jobs more effectively, they become more confident. This leads to greater job satisfaction and improved employee retention. There are a range of low-cost professional development training options to choose from, including mentorships, job shadowing and cross training.

Idea: Leverage the expertise you already have within your office. A mentor, for instance, can serve as guide and teacher and help mentees sharpen both their soft skills and technical abilities. Gaining practical knowledge, institutional insights and hands-on guidance is a highly effective way for mentees to become more valuable and versatile employees.

3. You make your company more appealing

When you offer training and development opportunities, you’re building a positive reputation as an employer that cares about its workforce and strives to employ only the best. Your customers and clients will benefit, too, from the high level of efficient service they receive. And keep in mind that your employees are your brand ambassadors. When they attend conferences and seminars, they represent and reflect all that’s good about your organization.

Idea: To encourage knowledge sharing after events, have brownbag lunches or ask team members to lead a meeting to share what they learned at an industry conference. Beyond helping the employee sharpen his or her presentation and teaching skills, these gatherings can boost the group’s knowledge base and help establish a greater sense of camaraderie.

Competitive compensation is critical in the tug-of-war companies are waging over skilled professionals today. 

4. You attract the right kind of in-demand candidates

Do you want to attract the most highly driven and career-focused candidates when you post a job opening? Offer them more than just a competitive salary and benefits; paint an enticing picture of how they can grow professionally or expand the career avenues available to them if they come to work for you.

Idea: In job postings and during interviews, actively promote that your company does all it can to help employees develop and refine their skills. But you should also play up your company’s learning culture and commitment to professional development training when meeting with potential employees at career fairs, conferences, networking lunches and other industry events.

5. You aid your retention strategy

Your workers want to feel like they’re appreciated and making a difference. But they also want to feel like they’re gaining expertise and becoming more well-rounded. If your team members don’t feel challenged, or they sense stagnation in their careers, they’ll look for advancement opportunities elsewhere. Lifelong learning exposes your employees to new experiences and keeps them engaged in their work. Professional development training helps build and maintain enthusiasm, but it also inspires loyalty.

Idea: Make sure employees know that you care about their evolving professional interests and objectives. Check in regularly and communicate your desire to help them build a long-term careerwith your firm. Giving high-potential team members challenging “stretch assignments” along with ongoing professional development and skill-building opportunities is a winning combination for improved retention.

6. You make succession planning easier

Do you feel like some employees clearly fall into the management material category? Leadership development programs are tools for grooming future leaders for your organization. If you’d like to be able to promote staff to managerial positions in the future, targeted training now can help you ensure your best and brightest are prepared to move up.

Idea: Sending top employees to accredited leadership training seminars and conferences can be a great move. But it’s also important to expose promising candidates for executive- and management-level roles to different parts of your organization. These individuals may even work for other functions temporarily under the tutelage of seasoned leaders in those departments. The purpose of this type of professional development training is to help future leaders gain a more complete understanding of how the business operates, and to acquire a broad set of skills that will help them guide the firm through change.

Finally, set a good example. Reinforce your commitment to professional development training by seeking educational opportunities for yourself. Research from the Center for Creative Leadership finds that it’s increasingly important for company leaders to take charge of their own learning. Plus, your promotion of professional development training to employees will be more impactful if it’s clear that you practice what you preach.


Source: https://www.roberthalf.com/blog/management-tips/professional-development-training-a-win-for-the-entire-team

10 Benefits of Professional Development

The budget for professional development and training would always be one of the first things when a company or an organization chooses to cut costs, but the truth is, this practice is counterproductive and costly. Do you ask why? Well, put in mind that professional development can help business owners and managers with attracting and retaining the top candidates, identify future leaders and ultimately boost bottom line. Investing in continuous education for workers is beneficial not just to staff members, but also to the organization as a whole. Here are rewards that you can reap from professional development.

1. It Can Sharpen Your Knowledge, Especially If You Are Already Feeling Rusty.

Do you remember your school days when you studied for hours and memorized technical information just to forget it after the exams? What’s worse, years later you are asked by your employer about the same concept, and you draw a blank. To avoid this predicament, you should refresh your knowledge through seminars and events that can help you stay updated on the knowledge obtained when you were a student and on the hands-on skills you have acquired on the job. As for your team, professional development increases their collective knowledge. As you can see, motivating your employees to train in pertinent applications and subjects that they use on a daily basis can have an immediate impact on the overall productivity of your organization. Moreover, it can also help raise overall expertise of your staff members when they have vastly different backgrounds.

2. It Develops Your Skills And Offers The Opportunity To Learn Something New.

Whether you are wanting to grow your current position or looking for a new role, taking professional development courses will provide you with a competitive edge. While at it, you will find out that these programs are an easy way to gain important knowledge quickly.

3. It Makes Employees Feel Satisfied.

Your employees would become more confident when they perform their jobs effectively, which leads to higher rates of retention and greater job satisfaction. So, you should offer them some opportunities to develop professionally, such as cross training, job shadowing and mentorships. This way, they will become more versatile and prominent players in your organization.

4. It Keeps You Up To Date And Guides You Away From Losing Touch With Your Industry Niche.

Are you up to speed with innovative best practices, labor market information and changing regulations? Well, professional development helps you stay informed about your sector and shows employers that you are constantly dedicated and engaged with your career.

5. It Enhances Business Reputation.

Of course, you want to attract more high-caliber job candidates when you place some ads for an opening and want your clients to know that you are employing highly skilled professionals. By providing professional development programs, you can assure yourself to achieve this and build a positive reputation as an employer who strives to employ only the best and cares about its people. Also, keep in mind that your employees are your brand ambassadors, so when they attend seminars and conferences, they reflect and represent all the good things about your company.

6. It Allows You To Meet New Contacts And Expand Your Network.

It is easy to get stuck in a social circle, but branching out will expose you to new ideas and provides you with the opportunity to meet other people who might be able to help with your career in the future. You can take advantage of networking events and workshops, where you will be acquainted with several notable individuals in your industry.

7. It Attracts More Qualified Candidates And Bolsters Your Retention Strategy.

Even the most prospective employees understand that professional training and certifications will be able to net them promotions, raises and higher salaries. If a job applicant knows that there is a potential to improve his skill level and compensation while working for your organization, it will be more likely that you are going to draw in top candidates. You should see to it that your employees would feel like they are making a difference, feeling challenged and not sensing stagnation in their careers, or else they will look for advancement opportunities elsewhere. Life-long learning will expose them to new experiences and will keep them engaged in their jobs. Having the ability to build this form of enthusiasm among your staff members will eventually result in a decrease in employee turnover.

8. It Re-Energizes Ideas For Your Projects.

Working on the same project for a long period of time can become lackluster. With professional development and training, you can increase your creativity and dedication, as well as reconnect with your passion for a specific industry niche.

9. It Makes Succession Planning Easier.

Mentorship programs and leadership training are great tools for grooming future leaders for your company. If you are planning to promote a staff member to a managerial position in the future, facilitating some targeted training today can help with ensuring he is prepared.

10. It Offers More Benefits To The Organization As a Whole.

Professional development helps maximize staff potential when you link learning to actions, as well as theory to practice. For the human resource department, they will be able to set specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound (SMART) objectives for training to be more closely associated with business needs. Staff development also leads to better morale and a motivated workforce, helping provide a positive brand image to your organization. Also, it adds value and helps staff members to consciously apply learning to their responsibilities and the development of the organization.

As professionals are becoming more specialized and as businesses are narrowing down their core offerings, the importance of being up to speed with the latest developments has also become increasingly important. Professional development, whether it is through in-house training, online class or live conference, is a great way to stay competitive in the ever-changing world of business. Does is your company or organization using such a program? Have you seen it paying off?

Best Business Jobs for 2018

Looking for a Job?

 

Statistician

#1 in Best Business Jobs
Statistics is the science of using data to make decisions. This is relevant in almost all fields of work and there are many opportunities for employment.

  • 12,400 Projected Jobs
  • $80,500 Median Salary
  • 1.4% Unemployment Rate

Actuary

#2 in Best Business Jobs
Are you more of a risk calculator than a risk taker? Consider working as an actuary. These professionals are experts in uncertainty, using mathematics, statistics and financial theory to measure, manage and mitigate financial risk.

  • 5,300 Projected Jobs
  • $100,610 Median Salary
  • 1.4% Unemployment Rate

Mathematician

#3 in Best Business Jobs
Mathematicians may have careers as varied as mathematics itself, working everywhere from classrooms to government buildings. While some mathematicians work primarily with theory, others use theory to solve everyday problems.

  • 900 Projected Jobs
  • $105,810 Median Salary
  • 1.4% Unemployment Rate

Cost Estimator

#4 in Best Business Jobs
From the cost of your cell phone to that of government programs, cost estimators analyze how much products and services should cost. Cost estimators also analyze the current cost of something, in addition to why a product or service costs more or less than previous estimates determined.

  • 23,000 Projected Jobs
  • $61,790 Median Salary
  • 0.6% Unemployment Rate

Business Operations Manager

#5 in Best Business Jobs
Business operations managers are a business’s go-to person. These managers assist companies of all sizes with hiring, negotiating contacts, budgeting and strategic decision-making regarding consumer purchases.

  • 205,900 Projected Jobs
  • $99,310 Median Salary
  • 1.7% Unemployment Rate

Market Research Analyst

#6 in Best Business Jobs
Knowing what customers want is essential in running a business, and market research analysts help companies do just that. Typical responsibilities include monitoring and forecasting marketing and sales trends, measuring the effectiveness of marketing programs and strategies, gathering and analyzing data, and preparing and presenting reports to both clients and management.

  • 21,800 Projected Jobs
  • $62,560 Median Salary
  • 3.8% Unemployment Rate

Accountant

#7 in Best Business Jobs
Accountants are at your service during tax season and beyond, preparing taxes, performing audits and offering consulting.

  • 140,300 Projected Jobs
  • $68,150 Median Salary
  • 2.5% Unemployment Rate

Financial Advisor

#8 in Best Business Jobs
Financial advisors counsel clients on their finances. Their responsibilities include creating budgets and retirement plans, providing investing advice and even investing on behalf of a client.

  • 39,300 Projected Jobs
  • $90,530 Median Salary
  • 1.5% Unemployment Rate

Financial Manager

#9 in Best Business Jobs
If financial managers were doctors, the financial success of their organization would be a testimony to their treatment. These business professionals create financial reports, coordinate investment activity and develop long-term financial strategies for companies.

  • 108,400 Projected Jobs
  • $121,750 Median Salary
  • 2.8% Unemployment Rate

Operations Research Analyst

#10 in Best Business Jobs
From data mining to mathematical modeling, operations research analysts use advanced techniques to help businesses run in a more efficient and cost-effective manner.

  • 31,300 Projected Jobs
  • $79,200 Median Salary
  • 3.3% Unemployment Rate

Compliance Officer

#11 in Best Business Jobs
Employment in this job spans across many industries, but generally the duties are the same: These performance auditors ensure ethics are practiced, laws are followed and regulations are met.

  • 23,700 Projected Jobs
  • $66,540 Median Salary
  • 0.8% Unemployment Rate

HR Specialist

#12 in Best Business Jobs
If you have a job, you’ve likely interacted with an HR specialist. These human resources personnel recruit, screen, interview and place employees, in addition to taking care of employee relations tasks.

  • 32,500 Projected Jobs
  • $59,020 Median Salary
  • 2.2% Unemployment Rate

Loan Officer

#13 in Best Business Jobs
From car loans to mortgages to business loans, loans are an inevitable part of the daily lives of Americans. A loan officer is a major player in the loan application and approval process. These officers evaluate, authorize or recommend loan application approval for individuals and businesses.

  • 36,500 Projected Jobs
  • $63,650 Median Salary
  • 2.5% Unemployment Rate

Medical and Health Services Manager

#14 in Best Business Jobs
Health care systems are like well-oiled machines, and it’s the job of medical and health services managers to keep all the parts running. These professionals might hire staff members, manage budgets, create goals for a department and increase the efficiency of health services, as well as manage a practice for a group of doctors, manage a medical facility or manage a department.

  • 69,800 Projected Jobs
  • $96,540 Median Salary
  • 3.3% Unemployment Rate

Financial Analyst

#15 in Best Business Jobs
Buy? Sell? It’s a financial analyst’s job to recommend what clients should do with their investments, in addition to compiling reports that explain their investment analyses.

  • 32,100 Projected Jobs
  • $81,760 Median Salary
  • 2.1% Unemployment Rate

Management Analyst

#16 in Best Business Jobs
Time really is money. Management analysts work with companies to improve overall efficiency, proposing plans to increase profitability, reduce costs and increase revenue.

  • 96,500 Projected Jobs
  • $81,330 Median Salary
  • 3.9% Unemployment Rate

Fundraiser

#17 in Best Business Jobs
Educational institutions, health research foundations, political campaigns and other nonprofit organizations rely on the help of fundraisers to raise money for their operations.

  • 13,200 Projected Jobs
  • $54,130 Median Salary
  • 4.2% Unemployment Rate

Social and Community Service Manager

#18 in Best Business Jobs
A profession that takes commitment and passion, social and community service management involves working with specific groups or communities to address issues.

  • 23,100 Projected Jobs
  • $64,680 Median Salary
  • 3.3% Unemployment Rate

Logistician

#19 in Best Business Jobs
A logistician is involved in every aspect of a product’s life, including design, purchase, transportation, inventory and warehousing.

  • 10,300 Projected Jobs
  • $74,170 Median Salary
  • 3.8% Unemployment Rate

Meeting, Convention and Event Planner

#20 in Best Business Jobs
If you’ve ever been impressed by a well-organized and informative convention or event, you have a talented meeting, convention and event planner to thank for that. These professionals organize things like the event”s goal, time, date, budget, venue,  transportation and activities.

  • 11,800 Projected Jobs
  • $47,350 Median Salary
  • 4.6% Unemployment Rate

Credit Counselor

#21 in Best Business Jobs
Credit counselors help customers address their debt, both over the phone and face-to-face.

  • 5,300 Projected Jobs
  • $44,380 Median Salary
  • 2.5% Unemployment Rate

Receptionist

#22 in Best Business Jobs
A receptionist is often the first person you meet when entering an office or business. He or she ensures an office runs smoothly by welcoming visitors and answering calls. While this job can serve as a stepping stone into an organization, it is also critical to the operation of a workplace.

  • 95,700 Projected Jobs
  • $27,920 Median Salary
  • 5.0% Unemployment Rate

Customer Service Representative

#23 in Best Business Jobs
Customer service representatives take care of a customer”s needs online and over the phone. Patience is important for this job and educations levels range depending on the product type. Most companies may provide basic product training as well.

  • 136,000 Projected Jobs
  • $32,300 Median Salary
  • 5.0% Unemployment Rate

Executive Assistant

#24 in Best Business Jobs
The duties of an executive assistant can be far more involved than those of an administrative assistant. Executive assistants complete important office management tasks and prepare and analyze reports.

  • -119,100 Projected Jobs
  • $55,860 Median Salary
  • 3.5% Unemployment Rate

Bookkeeping Accounting and Audit Clerk

#25 in Best Business Jobs
Bookkeeping, accounting and auditing clerks take care of an organization’s financial records, documenting financial transactions and keeping statements up-to-date.

  • -23,500 Projected Jobs
  • $38,390 Median Salary
  • 2.5% Unemployment Rate

Source: https://money.usnews.com/careers/best-jobs/rankings/best-business-jobs

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10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers

When you have successfully mastered the dual arts of how to make a resume and how make a cover letter, and you begin receiving requests for interviews, it’s time to understand how to succeed in the job interview so that you are ever closer to your goal of obtaining one or more job offers. This article focuses on the ten most important job interviewing tips for jobseekers.

  1. Conduct Research on the Employer, Hiring Manager, and Job Opportunity

Success in a job interview starts with a solid foundation of knowledge on the jobseeker’s part. You should understand the employer, the requirements of the job, and the background of the person (or people) interviewing you. The more research you conduct, the more you’ll understand the employer, and the better you’ll be able to answer interview questions. Scour the organization’s website and other published materials, search engines, research tools, and ask questions about the company in your network of contacts.

  1. Review Common Interview Questions and Prepare Your Responses

Another key to interview success is preparing responses to expected interview questions. First, ask the hiring manager as to the type of interview to expect. Will it be one-on-one or in a group? Will it be with one person, or will you meet several members of the organization? Your goal is to try to determine what you’ll be asked and to compose detailed yet concise responses that focus on specific examples and accomplishments.

A good tool for remembering your responses is to put them into a story form that you can tell in the interview. No need to memorize responses (in fact, it’s best not to), but do develop talking points. There are excellent tools available to help you with interview questions and responses. Also, consider using the STAR Interviewing Technique.

  1. Dress for Success

Plan out a wardrobe that fits the organization and its culture, striving for the most professional appearance you can accomplish. Remember that it’s always better to be overdressed than under and to wear clothing that fits and is clean and pressed. Keep accessories and jewelry to a minimum. Try not to smoke or eat right before the interview and if possible, brush your teeth or use mouthwash.

  1. Arrive on Time, Relaxed and Prepared for the Interview

There is no excuse ever for arriving late to an interview. Short of a disaster, strive to arrive about 15 minutes before your scheduled interview to complete additional paperwork and allow yourself time to get settled. Arriving a bit early is also a chance to observe the dynamics of the workplace.

The day before the interview, pack up extra copies of your resume or CV and reference list. If you have a portfolio or samples of your work, bring those along too. Finally, remember to pack several pens and a pad of paper to jot notes. Finally, as you get to the offices, shut off your cell phone. (And if you were chewing gum, get rid of it.)

  1. Make Good First Impressions

A cardinal rule of interviewing is to be polite and offer warm greetings to everyone you meet” from the parking attendant to the receptionist to the hiring manager. Employers often are curious how job applicants treat staff members” and your job offer could easily be derailed if you’re rude or arrogant to any of the staff. When it’s time for the interview, keep in mind that first impressions” the impression interviewers get in the first few seconds of meeting you” can make or break an interview.

Make a strong first impression by dressing well (see #3), arriving early (see #4), and when greeting your interviewer, stand, smile, make eye contact, and offer a firm but not bone-crushing handshake.

Remember that having a positive attitude and expressing enthusiasm for the job and employer are vital in the initial stages of the interview; studies show that hiring managers make critical decisions about job applicants in the first 20 minutes of the interview.

  1. Be Authentic, Upbeat, Focused, Confident, Candid, and Concise

Once the interview starts, the key to success is the quality and delivery of your responses. Your goal should always be authenticity, responding truthfully to interview questions. At the same time, your goal is to get to the next step, so you’ll want to provide focused responses that showcase your skills, experience, and fit with the job and the employer. Provide solid examples of solutions and accomplishments but keep your responses short and to the point.

By preparing responses to common interview questions (see #2), you’ll ideally avoid long, rambling responses that bore interviewers. Always attempt to keep your interview responses short and to the point. Finally, no matter how much an interviewer might bait you, never badmouth a previous employer, boss, or co-worker. The interview is about you and making your case that you are the ideal candidate for the job.

  1. Remember the Importance of Body Language

While the content of your interview responses is paramount, poor body language can be a distraction at best” or a reason not to hire you at worst. Effective forms of body language include smiling, eye contact, solid posture, active listening, and nodding. Detrimental forms of body language include slouching, looking off in the distance, playing with a pen, fidgeting in a chair, brushing back your hair, touching your face, chewing gum, or mumbling.

  1. Ask Insightful Questions

Studies continually show that employers make a judgment about an applicant’s interest in the job by whether or not the interviewee asks questions. Thus, even if the hiring manager was thorough in his or her discussions about the job opening and what is expected, you must ask a few questions. This shows that you have done your research and that you are curious. The smart jobseeker prepares questions to ask days before the interview, adding any additional queries that might arise from the interview.

  1. Sell Yourself and then Close the Deal

The most qualified applicant is not always the one who is hired; the winning candidate is often the jobseeker who does the best job responding to interview questions and showcasing his or her fit with the job, department, and organization. Some liken the job interview to a sales call. You are the salesperson” and the product you are selling to the employer is your ability to fill the organization’s needs, solve its problems, propel its success.

Finally, as the interview winds down, ask about the next steps in the process and the timetable in which the employer expects to use to make a decision about the position.

  1. Thank Interviewer(s) in Person, by Email, or Postal Mail

Common courtesy and politeness go far in interviewing; thus, the importance of thanking each person who interviews you should come as no surprise. Start the process while at the interview, thanking each person who interviewed you before you leave. Writing thank-you emails or notes shortly after the interview will not get you the job offer, but doing so will certainly give you an edge over any of the other finalists who didn’t bother to send thank-you notes.

Final Thoughts on Job Interview Success

Succeeding in job interviews takes research, practice, and persistence. The more effort you put into your interview preparation, the more success you’ll see in obtaining job offers especially if you remember and follow these ten job interviewing tips.

Source: https://www.livecareer.com/career/advice/interview/job-interview-tips

 

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How to Conduct an Effective Job Interview

The virtual stack of resumes in your inbox is winnowed and certain candidates have passed the phone screen. Next step: in-person interviews. How should you use the relatively brief time to get to know — and assess — a near stranger? How many people at your firm should be involved? How can you tell if a candidate will be a good fit? And finally, should you really ask questions like: “What’s your greatest weakness?”

What the Experts Say
As the employment market improves and candidates have more options, hiring the right person for the job has become increasingly difficult. “Pipelines are depleted and more companies are competing for top talent,” says Claudio Fernández-Aráoz, a senior adviser at global executive search firm Egon Zehnder and author of It’s Not the How or the What but the Who: Succeed by Surrounding Yourself with the Best. Applicants also have more information about each company’s selection process than ever before. Career websites like Glassdoor have “taken the mystique and mystery” out of interviews, says John Sullivan, an HR expert, professor of management at San Francisco State University, and author of 1000 Ways to Recruit Top Talent. If your organization’s interview process turns candidates off, “they will roll their eyes and find other opportunities,” he warns. Your job is to assess candidates but also to convince the best ones to stay. Here’s how to make the interview process work for you — and for them.

Prepare your questions
Before you meet candidates face-to-face, you need to figure out exactly what you’re looking for in a new hire so that you’re asking the right questions during the interview. Begin this process by “compiling a list of required attributes” for the position, suggests Fernández-Aráoz. For inspiration and guidance, Sullivan recommends looking at your top performers. What do they have in common? How are they resourceful? What did they accomplish prior to working at your organization? What roles did they hold? Those answers will help you create criteria and enable you to construct relevant questions.

Reduce stress
Candidates find job interviews stressful because of the many unknowns. What will my interviewer be like? What kinds of questions will he ask? How can I squeeze this meeting into my workday? And of course: What should I wear? But “when people are stressed they do not perform as well,” says Sullivan. He recommends taking preemptive steps to lower the candidate’s cortisol levels. Tell people in advance the topics you’d like to discuss so they can prepare. Be willing to meet the person at a time that’s convenient to him or her. And explain your organization’s dress code. Your goal is to “make them comfortable” so that you have a productive, professional conversation.

Involve (only a few) others
When making any big decision, it’s important to seek counsel from others so invite a few trusted colleagues to help you interview. “Monarchy doesn’t work. You want to have multiple checks” to make sure you hire the right person, Fernández-Aráoz explains. “But on the other hand, extreme democracy is also ineffective” and can result in a long, drawn-out process. He recommends having three people interview the candidate: “the boss, the boss’ boss, and a senior HR person or recruiter.” Peer interviewers can also be “really important,” Sullivan adds, because they give your team members a say in who gets the job. “They will take more ownership of the hire and have reasons to help that person succeed,” he says.

Assess potential
Budget two hours for the first interview, says Fernández-Aráoz. That amount of time enables you to “really assess the person’s competency and potential.” Look for signs of the candidate’s “curiosity, insight, engagement, and determination.” Sullivan says to “assume that the person will be promoted and that they will be a manager someday. The question then becomes not only can this person do the job today, but can he or she do the job a year from now when the world has changed?” Ask the candidate how he learns and for his thoughts on where your industry is going. “No one can predict the future, but you want someone who is thinking about it every day,” Sullivan explains.

Ask for real solutions
Don’t waste your breath with absurd questions like: What are your weaknesses? “You might as well say, ‘Lie to me,’” says Sullivan. Instead try to discern how the candidate would handle real situations related to the job. After all, “How do you hire a chef? Have them cook you a meal,” he says. Explain a problem your team struggles with and ask the candidate to walk you through how she would solve it. Or describe a process your company uses, and ask her to identify inefficiencies. Go back to your list of desired attributes, says Fernández-Aráoz. If you’re looking for an executive who will need to influence a large number of people over whom he won’t have formal power, ask: “Have you ever been in a situation where you had to persuade other people who were not your direct reports to do something? How did you do it? And what were the consequences?”

Consider “cultural fit,” but don’t obsess
Much has been made about the importance of “cultural fit” in successful hiring. And you should look for signs that “the candidate will be comfortable” at your organization, says Fernández-Aráoz. Think about your company’s work environment and compare it to the candidate’s orientation. Is he a long-term planner or a short-term thinker? Is he collaborative or does he prefer working independently? But, says Sullivan, your perception of a candidate’s disposition isn’t necessarily indicative of whether he can acclimate to a new culture. “People adapt,” he says. “What you really want to know is: can they adjust?”

Sell the job
If the meeting is going well and you believe that the candidate is worth wooing, spend time during the second half of the interview selling the role and the organization. “If you focus too much on selling at the beginning, it’s hard to be objective,” says Fernández-Aráoz. But once you’re confident in the candidate, “tell the person why you think he or she is a good fit,” he recommends. Bear in mind that the interview is a mutual screening process. “Make the process fun,” says Sullivan. Ask them if there’s anyone on the team they’d like to meet. The best people to sell the job are those who “live it,” he explains. “Peers give an honest picture of what the organization is like.”

Principles to Remember

Do:

  • Lower your candidates’ stress levels by telling them in advance the kinds of questions you plan to ask
  • Ask behavioral and situational questions
  • Sell the role and the organization once you’re confident in your candidate

Don’t:

  • Forget to do pre-interview prep — list the attributes of an ideal candidate and use it to construct relevant questions
  • Involve too many other colleagues in the interviews — multiple checks are good, but too many people can belabor process
  • Put too much emphasis on “cultural fit” —  remember, people adapt

Case study #1: Provide relevant, real-life scenarios to reveal how candidates think
The vast majority of hires at Four Kitchens, the web design firm in Austin, TX, are through employee referrals. So in November, when Todd Ross Nienkerk, the company’s founder and CEO, had an opening for an account manager, he had a hunch about who should get the job. “It was somebody who’d been a finalist for a position here years ago,” says Todd. We’ll call her Deborah. “We kept her in mind and when this job opened, she was the first person we called.”

Even though Deborah was a favored candidate, she again went through the company’s three-step interview process. The first focused on skills. When Four Kitchens interviews designers or coders, it typically asks applicants to provide a portfolio of work. “We ask them to talk us through their process. We’re not grilling them, but we want to know how they think and we want to see their personal communication style.” But for the account manager role, Todd took a slightly different tack. Before the interview, he and the company’s head of business development put together a job description and then came up with questions based on the relevant responsibilities. They started with questions like: What are things you look for in a good client? What are red flags in a client relationship? How do you deal with stress?

Then, Todd presented Deborah with a series of redacted client emails that represented a cross-section of day-to-day communication: some were standard requests for status updates; others involved serious contract disputes and pointed questions. “We said, ‘Pretend you work here. Talk us through how you’d handle this.’ It put her on the spot, but frankly, this is what the job entails.”

After a successful first round, Deborah moved on to the second phase, the team interview. In this instance, she met with a project manager, a designer, and two developers. “These are an opportunity for applicants to find out what it’s like to work here,” says Todd. “But the biggest reason we do it is to ensure that everyone is involved in the process and feels a sense of ownership over the hire.”

The final stage was the partner interview, during which Todd asked Deborah questions about career goals and the industry. “It was also an opportunity for her to ask us tough questions about where our company is headed,” he says.

Deborah got the job, and started earlier this month.

Case study #2: Make the candidate comfortable and sell the job
When Mimi Gigoux, the EVP of human resources at Criteo, the French ad-tech company, interviews a job candidate, she looks for signs of “intellect, open-mindedness, and passion” both for the company and for the role. “Technical expertise can be taught on the job, but you can’t teach passion, drive, and creativity,” says Mimi, who is based in Silicon Valley.

About two months ago, Mimi opened a requisition for a new member of her team. She was particularly interested in one of the applicants: a person who had previously run talent operations at several top companies in the Bay Area. We’ll call him Bryan.

Before the interview, her team communicated with Bryan about the kinds of questions Mimi planned to ask. “I don’t believe in ‘tough interviews,’” she says. “If candidates perceive a hostile environment, they go into self-preservation mode.” And when Bryan came in for the interview, she did everything she could to make him comfortable. She started by asking him questions about his hobbies and interests, and Bryan told her about recent trips he had taken to Nepal and Australia. “It told me that he was open and intrigued by different cultures”— a characteristic she deemed critical for the recruiting role.

Mimi then moved on to past professional experience. Her aim, she says, was “to find out what inspired him to move from one job to the next.” She also asked behavioral-based questions. “I wanted to see how he identified patterns and problems, how he has managed difficult personalities in the past, and how he worked cross-functionally,” she says.

Mimi offered the job to Bryan; he accepted but later had to retract for personal reasons.

Source: https://hbr.org/2015/01/how-to-conduct-an-effective-job-interview

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The importance of continuing professional development

The importance of continuing professional development

We are often asked to describe the importance of continuing professional development. Why is CPD important and why does it matter?

  • You’ve finished your degree. Check.
  • You’ve completed all your practical experience requirements so that you can graduate. Check.
  • Your new job is all lined up and ready to go. Mission accomplished.

It’s fair to say the first part of your mission is well and truly accomplished.  Sit back and give yourself a pat on the back. But don’t take too long about it or you’ll be lagging behind your colleagues. The same is true for professionals with many years experience in the workplace.

Continuing professional development is important because it ensures you continue to be competent in your profession. It is an ongoing process and continues throughout a professional’s career.

The ultimate outcome of well planned continuing professional development is that it safeguards the public, the employer, the professional and the professional’s career.

Well crafted and delivered continuing professional development is important because it delivers benefits to the individual, their profession and the public.

  • CPD ensures  your capabilities keep pace with the current standards of others in the same field.
  • CPD ensures that you maintain and enhance the knowledge and skills you need to deliver a professional service to your customers, clients and the community.
  • CPD ensures that you and your knowledge stay relevant and up to date. You are more aware of the changing trends and directions in your profession. The pace of change is probably faster than it’s ever been – and this is a feature of the new normal that we live and work in. If you stand still you will get left behind, as the currency of your knowledge and skills becomes out-dated.
  • CPD helps you continue to make a meaningful contribution to your team. You become more effective in the workplace. This assists you to advance in your career and move into new positions where you can lead, manage, influence, coach and mentor others.
  • CPD helps you to stay interested and interesting.  Experience is a great teacher, but it does mean that we tend to do what we have done before.  Focused CPD opens you up to new possibilities, new knowledge and new skill areas.
  • CPD can deliver a deeper understanding of what it means to be a professional, along with a greater appreciation of the implications and impacts of your work.
  • CPD helps advance the body of knowledge and technology within your profession
  • CPD can lead to increased public confidence in individual professionals and their profession as a whole
  • Depending on the profession – CPD contributes to  improved protection and quality of life, the environment, sustainability, property and the economy.  This particularly applies to high risk areas, or specialised practice areas which often prove impractical to monitor on a case by case basis.

The importance of continuing professional development should not be underestimated – it is a career-long obligation for practicing professionals.

Sometimes it is mandated by professional organisations or required by codes of conduct or codes of ethics. But at it’s core it is a personal responsibility of professionals to keep their knowledge and skills current so that they can deliver the high quality of service that safeguards the public and meets the expectations of customers and the requirements of their profession.

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7 Tips for Networking

Networking goes hand in hand with running a successful business.

But many of us dread walking into a room and introducing ourselves to a bunch of strangers.

I’ve been asked to share my best networking tips at a meeting today of the National Association of Women Business Owners in Philadelphia. Here are the most valuable tips I’ve come across – and put to work myself – over the years:

1. Resist the urge to arrive late. It’s almost counter-intuitive, but showing up early at a networking event is a much better strategy than getting there on the later side. As a first attendee, you’ll notice that it’s calmer and quieter – and people won’t have settled into groups yet. It’s easier to find other people who don’t have conversation partners yet.

2. Ask easy questions. Don’t wait around the edges of the room, waiting for someone to approach you. To get the conversation started, simply walk up to a person or a group, and say, “May I join you” or “What brings you to this event?” Don’t forget to listen intently to their replies. If you’re not a natural extrovert, you’re probably a very good listener – and listening can be an excellent way to get to know a person.

3. Ditch the sales pitch. Remember, networking is all about relationship building. Keep your exchange fun, light and informal – you don’t need to do the hard sell within minutes of meeting a person. The idea is to get the conversation started. People are more apt to do business with – or partner with – people whose company they enjoy.  

If a potential customer does ask you about your product or service, be ready with an easy description of your company. Before the event, create a mental list of recent accomplishments, such as a new client you’ve landed or project you’ve completed. That way, you can easily pull an item off that list and into the conversation.

4. Share your passion. Win people over with your enthusiasm for your product or service. Leave a lasting impression by telling a story about why you were inspired to create your company. Talking about what you enjoy is often contagious, too. When you get other people to share their passion, it creates a memorable two-way conversation.

5. Smile. It’s a simple – but often overlooked – rule of engagement. By smiling, you’ll put your nervous self at ease, and you’ll also come across as warm and inviting to others. Remember to smile before you enter the room, or before you start your next conversation. And if you’re really dreading the event? Check the negative attitude at the door.

6. Don’t hijack the conversation. Some people who dislike networking may overcompensate by commandeering the discussion. Don’t forget: The most successful networkers (think of those you’ve met) are good at making other people feel special. Look people in the eye, repeat their name, listen to what they have to say, and suggest topics that are easy to discuss. Be a conversationalist, not a talker.

7. Remember to follow up. It’s often said that networking is where the conversation begins, not ends. If you’ve had a great exchange, ask your conversation partner the best way to stay in touch. Some people like email or phone; others prefer social networks like LinkedIn. Get in touch within 48 hours of the event to show you’re interested and available, and reference something you discussed, so your contact remembers you.

Source: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/223468

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New Ideas for Upping Your Networking

It’s no secret—networking is not easy. Even if you’re the biggest people-person out there, you can still miss out on valuable connections if you’re not playing the game right.

So, to help everyone out, we’ve gathered some of the best ideas from around the web for getting more out of every networking situation you find yourself in.

Source: https://www.themuse.com/advice/66-new-ideas-for-upping-your-networking-game

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Investing in yourself

Investing in yourself is one of the best return on investments you can have. Whether it’s investing in learning a new skill, developing yourself personally or professionally, tapping into your creativity or hiring a coach, you need to give to yourself first before you can give to others. It is our responsibility to take the time to develop our gifts and talents, so we can best serve others. Investing in yourself is an example of self-love, you must love yourself before you can expect others to love you.

Why is investing in yourself so powerful?

Investing in yourself, sends a powerful message to yourself and the world. The message is:

The value and potential that I possess, is important enough to me that I’m going to give it the energy, space and time to grow and create results.

When you’re willing to say yes, and take that leap of faith and invest in yourself, the universe will provide you with amazing rewards.

I would like to share some incredible ways that you can invest in yourself – the great news is they don’t all require money.

Top 10 Ways to Invest in Yourself

1. Set goals. Learn how to set personal and business goals for yourself. If you’re not taking the time to set goals it’s like driving in the dark with the headlights turned off. You will not know where you’re going and you will waste precious time. Be sure to also set some time frames in which to meet them. Your goals should be SMART goals -Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Timely.

2. Honor your intuition. You can show yourself love by trusting your gut and honoring the message that it’s sending. Listening to your intuition, will allow you to make better decisions. Valuing your intuition, by not allowing the thoughts, feelings or statements of others to take away from what you know to be true is very empowering. By paying attention to how you feel, it will help you to make better, smarter and quicker decisions. I know for me personally, if I choose to ignore my gut or intuition when I feel a strong feeling about something, it almost always is a decision or action that I end up regretting. I have learned to always trust my intuition and that is what leads me in my life and business.

3. Invest time in your creativity. Our creativity doesn’t have to diminish as we get older. In fact, it is believed that the peak of creativity in most people is around 30-40 years old. (Lindaur, 1998, Marisiske &Willis, 1998) Creativity can be the catalyst in the manifestation of continual learning and lifelong activity. It allows us to be inspired, have fun and appreciate the beauty in the world.

4. Invest in building your confidence. People who know their value, have something to say and others will listen. You can invest in yourself by developing an understanding of the value that you possess and offer others. Learn to have the courage to speak your truth. The more you love yourself and own the value that you offer, the more confident you will become in sharing it with others.

5. Read educational books. Books or audio books are an awesome resource to build your knowledge and expertise in any area.

6. Attend seminars and workshops to expand your knowledge and skills in your business and/or personal life. This will also give you the opportunity to meet and interact with individuals who are like-minded.

7. Take care of your health. Eat right each day, fueling your body with nutrients. When you focus on eating organic and healthier choices, you will feel better and have more energy. I know that the unhealthy burger or cupcake gives us instant gratification, but if you’re like me, you regret it later, because you feel lousy afterwards. Exercise daily. Do something every day to get moving and get your heart rate up, even, if it’s just walking the dog. Exercise gives you the energy to take on the day with confidence because of how it makes you look and feel. I have dedicated
a whole chapter in my book on health (Chapter 11) because of just how important it is to your success!

8. Choose to be happy. Happiness is a choice. Happy people choose to focus on the positive aspects of life, rather than the negative. They are not held hostage by their circumstances. They look at all the reasons to be grateful. “Most people are about as happy as they make up their minds to be.”- Abraham Lincoln

9. Work on your bucket list. If you don’t have a bucket list, then it’s time to start one. Your bucket list is meant to be a list of everything you want to achieve, do, see, feel and experience in your life. Your list may be ongoing, but you can start by writing 100 things down. Then each month or so, make sure you’re knocking out at least, one of the items on your list.

10. Invest in a coach. A coach can assist you in putting all of these strategies into action. A coach is your partner in success. It is their job to assist you in creating and implementing your success plan, so you can become the best that you can be.

I can promise this: When you invest in yourself, a world of opportunities will open up for you. And, if you have a business where you sell your services, you must know that no one will invest in you until you invest in yourself first.

Investing in yourself emotionally, physically, spiritually and financially, will allow you to become the best version of yourself. When you are the best version of yourself, you will be an attraction magnet to others!

Please share which of the 10 tips listed above you plan to implement this week…I would love to hear from you!

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