Change and Technology

Change and Technology

By Dr Nilsa Fleury, DeD, FPA-BM Director of Education

Preparing organizations for the process of change needs to be strategically planned to know where to go and how to get there. Technology has become a key to the organizations, in which performance, research and development, manufacturing, economic climate, marketing competition, and change of consumers’ needs is important factors to be focused on the future for its implementation. Strong (2007) wrote a “paradigm shift occurs when a dominant technology is replaced for something new” (p.49). Some examples of paradigms shift are laptops to multiuse PDAs, wired to wireless communication, Web1.0 to Web 2.0 applications, physical classrooms to virtual classrooms, and so forth.  Further, the internet is changing the world, and people work, shop, do business, and communicate virtually (Osland & Turner, 2011, p. m).

On the video, Canfield (2010) established the annual planning components and the strategic planning steps: 1) mission, 2) values, 3) scoreboard, 4) business environment, 5) goals, 6) strategies, 7) action plan, 8) plan implementations, and 9) plan monitoring considerations to make considerable changes in organizations.  Canfield (2010) considered two techniques to make changes: (a) the planning sessions (operation, strategic, and scenario); and (b) the skill to make improvements in company performance, decisions, behaviors, insights and ideas, and thinking. On the other hand, Chaudron (2008) on the YouTube video (part one) gave a great citation of the keys to successful organization change: framework and systems, assessment measurement, training and learning, and teamwork and consensus. On the part one of the video, Chaudron (2008) focused on framework and systems as a key ingredient to organization change, in which shapes the future, defining what business to do, re-engineering process, and incremental process improvement. Claudron (2008) also gave directions and advantages for the scenario planning.

Among the advantages Claudron (2008) suggested the exploration of interaction between social, economic, and competitive concerns, and provide indicators of what might happen so that organizations can drive. The core competences were the basis to start the strategic planning, in which mission, opportunities, goals, and vision is essential to build the scenario and implement the plan. On the part two of Claudron (2008) video, you could watch the assessment and measurement of the strategic plan using the balance scorecard: financial measures, customer measures, internal business operations, and human resource systems. The scorecard can address problems before they occur.

Next, Claudron (2008) presented the steps for implementation change as equation change, measurement, technique, control, focused persistence, resources, and consensus. Claudron (2008) showed three scenarios examples to give alternatives, and create opportunities to organization change: status-quo, companies diversifies into high tech, socio-economic order threatened, and socio-economic collapse. In a global world, technology has been the thermometer of the organizations to make changes and pursue of competitive advantage. The purpose of scenarios and strategic planning are an important support to make decisions and choices to prevent the future (Ralston, & Wilson, 2006). At least as important is to understand the organization process that involves employees in the scenarios approach and in its environment.

References

Canfield, J. (2010). Strategic Planning and Scenario Planning .Retrieved from http://www. Youtube.com/watch?v=xs-Hi_ctHoY&feature=related

Chaudron, D. (2008). Overview of Strategic Planning [part 1video]. Retrieved from http:// youtube.com/watch?v=ikRWdZOxjZs

Chaudron, D. (2008). Overview of Strategic Planning [part 2 video]. Retrieved from http:// youtube.com/watch?v=vqByFsalvjY

Osland, J. S., & Turner, M. E. (2011). Individual and Organizational Learning. In a S. Yagan (Ed.). The organizational behavior reader (9th. ed.). Upper Saddle River: NJ: Person Education Inc., Prentice Hall.

Ralston, B., & Wilson, I. (2006). The scenario planning handbook: Developing strategies in uncertain times. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Strong, B. (2007). Strategic planning technological change. Educause Quartely, 3, pp. 48-51.


The FPA-BM has as Director of Education Dr. Nilsa Fleury, Ed.D. Dr. Nilsa, is a consultant, university professor and information analyst. Dr. Nilsa graduated in Business Administration from FACE – UFMG, postgraduate in Industrial Economics – UFMG, Specialization in Information Systems by UNA – Cepederh. She holds a Master in Business Science and Doctorate in Education, concentration in Leadership at Nova Southeastern University. She worked as a consultant for the government and private sector in Brazil, USA and Canada. In addition, Dr. Nilsa taught business in some universities in Brazil. She teaches Business and Education courses for undergraduate and graduate courses in the USA.

Green Education: A Solution for the Environmental Crisis And for the New Green Economy

Green Education: A Solution for the Environmental Crisis And for the New Green Economy

By Dr. John Peterson, PhD, FPA-BM Chairman of the Board

In recent years, the effects of global warming and climate changes are impacting our planet in an unprecedented way, providing a need for greater awareness and solutions to the environmental crisis (DeGalan & Middlekauff, 2008). This same awareness provides a demand for the creation of a new “green” industry that brings with it new career opportunities. The future is in the hands of a new generation of students, and it is our job as a society to support them through education, including a greener education, in order to prepare them to lead the development of solutions to the environmental crisis. Currently, there are many outstanding initiatives for green implementations. This paper will provide an environmental scan to examine the initiatives in education and the green jobs of tomorrow. Based on this investigation, this paper presents a plan to strengthen green education.

Rationale for Green Education

Most people assume that “green is good;” however, there is very little effort to act on this assumption. This is potentially a dangerous situation afflicting society. The Ginsberg Center at University of Michigan provided data that stated, “with only 6% of the world’s population, Americans generate 35% of the trash and consume 35% of the world’s resources,” and “80% of all the oil discovered in North America to date has already been extracted” (Ginsberg Center, n.d.). Today, there is a need to bring the environmental crisis inside classrooms and to increase pressure on the federal government and society to raise the number of “green jobs.” A green education can accommodate this need and provide students with opportunities to the emerging green industry. Holeywell (2011) reported that advocates see environmental education as a fit for the new green economy. As part of this goal, there is a growing enforcement of science and math in green oriented schools in order to prepare students for this new economy. The strong rationale existing to provide green education are fighting environmental crisis and preparing students for the new jobs created by a green industry.

Defining Green Education

The Nevada Natural Resource Education Council (NNREC) defined green education, also known as environmental education, as:

A process aimed at developing a world population that is aware of and concerned about the total environment and its associated problems, and which has the knowledge, attitudes, motivations, commitments, and skills to work individually and collectively toward solutions of current problems and the prevention of new ones. (Nevada Natural Resource Education Council, 2005, para.1)

Objectives of an Environmental or Greener Education

According to the NNREC the main objectives of an environmental, or green, education is to assist individuals or social groups to become aware, and sensible, to the environment and its problems as a whole, to increase a diversity of experiences, and to obtain a basic comprehension of the environment and its related problems. Green education also provides students the motivation to participate actively in environmental progress and safety. Environmental education exists to help students identify and solve environmental problems by creating opportunities to engage in solving them (Nevada Natural Resource Education Council, 2005).

Elder (2009) explained that, because of the accelerated interest by the Obama administration in the transition to a clean energy and greener economy, there is a priority in helping higher education play a critical role in making this transition a reality. This effort is monumental and public engagement is vital. According to Elder, “a broad base of literate citizens must help” (p.108) from implementing changes in business and personal practices to students understanding “the complex connections and inter-dependencies between the environment, energy sources, and the economy — connections that underpin the concept of a clean energy, green economy” (p.108). One of the crucial objectives of a greener, sustainable education is to generate new ways of thinking and learning about solutions for the environmental problems, and to raise awareness to the political agendas brought by the connection between economy, energy, environment, and the social well-being.

Environmental Scan on Factors Influencing Green Education and Green Economy

There is a need for green education. The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) believes that green education is essential. USGBC plays a major role in “greener” architecture education, by making resources available to educators and professionals in the architectural, engineering, and construction fields. The U.S. Green Building Council (2011) gives special attention to LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) education, where they provide an expert group of passionate professionals in the field working as faculty. Allenby (2005) referred to the need of combining economic discourse development with environmental discourse to prevent that, if they do not align, one would overcome the other. This implies that constructing a culture of sustainability in the traditional economic system will lead to a benefit to humankind by preventing natural disasters and at the same time strengthening the economy. A market need already exists for qualified skilled labor in green industries. According to Muro, Rothwell, and Saha (2011), green or clean or low-carbon economy is defined as “the sector of the economy that produces goods and services with an environmental benefit” (para.1), and it remains broadly celebrated as a source of economic renewal and potential job creation. Yet, Muro et al. (2011) criticized the clean economy as “hard to assess” (para.1). These authors suggested that these green jobs have been difficult to isolate and count. However, they are present in all sectors of the U.S. economy. This clean economy has continued to stay under the radar perhaps because of a lack of standard definitions and data, which affect the knowledge of its nature, size, and growth at the critical regional level (Muro et al., 2011). In order to address this issue the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings Institute worked with Battelle’s Technology Partnership Practice “to develop, analyze, and comment on a detailed database of establishment-level employment statistics pertaining to a sensibly defined assemblage of clean economy industries in the United States and its metropolitan areas” (Muro et al., 2011, para.3-4).

According to the results of the research, the clean economy employs approximately 2.7 million workers, including a large number of jobs spread across a variety of industries (Muro et al., 2011). Between 2003 and 2010, the newer “cleantech” (Muro et al., 2011, para.6) segments created an impressive elevated quantity of job gains outperforming the nation during the recession (Muro et al., 2011). Characteristics of a clean economy include being manufacturing and export intensive (Muro et al., 2011). It is also important to note that today’s concern with unemployment justifies investments in the clean and sustainable economy, because it offers more job opportunities and better pay for low and middle skilled workers, than the national economy as a whole. Average wages were 13% higher in green collar occupations, although workers with relatively little formal education are occupying an inconsistent percentage of green jobs (Kujac, 2011; Muro et al., 2011).

Green Education Leadership

The Green Education Foundation (GEF) is one of many organizations leading the global commitment for green education among K-12 students and teachers. GEF, a non-profit organization, provides curriculum and resources to support critical thinking about global environmental concerns and solutions (Green Education Foundation, 2011a). Another significant leader in the fight for green education is The Green Schools Initiative (GSI). The GSI was founded in 2004 by parent-environmentalists who “were shocked by how un-environmental their kids’ schools were and mobilized to improve the environmental health and ecological sustainability of schools in the U.S.” (GSI, n.d., para.1). These organizations of concerned citizens are global, and are willing to fight for the cause of green education. Yet , for the most part, they lack the opportunity. Education can create this opportunity. As Newman (2011) explained, education brings together all the ways to develop values and sustainable lifestyles, for this and future generations, by “raising public awareness and training, and to critically improve ethical awareness, attitudes, skills, and behavior on sustainable development” (p.8).

Brief SWOT Analysis of Green Education and the Job Market

It is necessary for any educational institution to look closer at the internal factors of strength and opportunity, and the external factors of weakness and threats (SWOT) of the green job market prior to offering educational programs. As in all programs offered by an educational institution, green education must align with the needs of students. Strengths justifying green education relate to the increasing demand by society to create alternative solutions to the environmental and economical crisis the nation faces. These demands also supply an opportunity for a new green industry. According to Slywotzky, Wise, and Weber (2003), the green industry is growing faster than traditional agriculture and construction industries, with an estimated growth rate of 10 to 15% annually. The opportunity for green education is tied to the prospect of a long term growth in the green industry (Slywotzky, et al., 2003). Weaknesses preventing the success of green education include the slow engagement from educational organizations and society at large. Green Education Foundation (2011b) explained, “cultural changes are often imperceptible, occurring slowly over generations, accumulating through smaller, seemingly unrelated events” (para.1). A major threat to the acceptance of green education resides on the new behavior children are adopting, by spending longer periods of time indoors and not engaging with nature (Green Education Foundation, 2011b). There are many different causes for this behavior, and it is not on the scope of this paper to discuss them.

Proposed Plan to Stimulate the Growth of Green Education

Simple Solutions Leading to Jobs

To stimulate the growth of green education, leaders should start by creating simple campaigns, and then developing these campaigns to a full body of coursework with curricula designed specifically for sustainability. Hu (2011) at The New York Times’ education section reported an example of a simple and efficient campaign,

Simple yellow Post-it notes with the message ‘When not in use, turn off the juice’, pointedly left on classroom computers, printers and air-conditioners, have helped the Mount Sinai School District on Long Island save $350,000 annually on utility bills. (Hu, 2011, para.1)

Hu explained further that minor adjustments in the way energy is consumed could make a big impact on savings, as several districts similar to Mount Sinai has found. Leaders in these districts are creating policies to go green in order to save money, and they have no choice in this economical crisis, when budgets for schools are continuously being reduced. This new awareness for the efficiency of sustainability has generated an increase in job opportunities as well. Some states have also started programs to finance school conservation efforts and to create local contracting jobs. Most recently, Oregon passed legislation in June to provide school districts with low-interest loans and grants for school efficiency improvements. Washington State started a similar grant-based program in 2009 (Hu, 2011). Climate change, solar and nuclear power, water and air quality, population growth, our fisheries, forests, and fossil fuels, and agriculture and food supply are critical environmental problems. However, according to Hollander (2004), developing economically and advancing technologically will reduce harms such as lack of food, air pollution, deforestation, and land degradation. Also, it will improve public health, supply clean water, and satisfy energy supplies.

A Mandatory Green Education

Education is the link to economic development and technological advances, more specifically green education. There should be a mandatory sustainable and environmental education in K-12 and higher education, and the crediting agencies, as per example the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) should demand this as a requisite for accreditation.

A Green Zone

A “green zone” around the metropolitan areas that would allocate the new green industry, free of taxation and with stimulus packages, should exist. The green jobs created by these new pollution-free and sustainable factories and shops would stimulate the economy, and provide potential entry-level green collar job opportunities for recent graduates of career colleges and high schools offering coursework based on green curriculum.

Political Support

These are simple ideas, and for them to happen a strong political effort by community leaders and by the society as a whole should take place. Nevertheless, what we see is a retrograde speech and an old-fashioned prejudice against innovations, perhaps supported by the strong industrial corporations with profit interests tied on the “status quo” of the current economy. Yet, there is hope: as explained by WebEcoist (2011):

American leaders have yet to sign the Kyoto Protocol or earmark serious funding to green-collar jobs and sustainable technologies and energy. But American citizens have taken it upon themselves join a global movement, to learn more despite the gridlock in Washington; to conserve, to drive the development of eco-friendly consumption, to buy hybrids or use mass transit, even to telecommute. More and more people now recycle, compost, ‘go organic’, grow gardens and understand the connection between saving money, improving health and helping the environment. More people are interested in technology and efficient living than ever before. And more and more people are becoming curious about the natural world in all its majesty and strangeness (para.14).

Conclusion

Green education is fundamental in training students for the job opportunities brought by a green economy and is important in creating consciousness among future generations around the need to conserve the environment. The key for human survival connects to the survival of the planet. Today, there is a growing understanding on the environmental crisis, and as shown in this paper, a plausible solution relates to a greener education. There are many new opportunities in economy, which exists when traditional industries embrace alternative solutions to the economical crisis, such as the creation of clean energy and the investment in sustainability, as this paper focus explains.

References

Allenby, B. (2005). Reconstructing Earth: Technology and environment in the age of humans. Washington, DC: Island Press.

DeGalan, J., & Middlekauff, B. (2008). Great jobs for environmental studies majors (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Elder, J. (2009). Higher education and the clean energy, green economy. EDUCAUSE Review 44(6), pp. 108-109.

Holeywell, R. (2011, March). States pushing green education in the classroom [Article]. Retrieved from Governing Web site: http://www.governing.com/topics/education/States-Pushing-Green-Education-in-the-Classroom.html

Hollander, J. (2004). The real environmental crisis: Why poverty, not Affluence, is the environment’s number one enemy. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Hu, W. (2011, August 14). With post-its and checklists, schools cut their energy bills [Article]. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/15/education/15energy.html?_r=2

Green Education Foundation (2011a). About us. Retrieved from http://www.greeneducationfoundation.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=141&Itemid=27

Green Education Foundation (2011b). Help shrink nature deficit. Retrieved from http://www.greeneducationfoundation.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=89:help-shrink-nature-deficit&catid=38:gef-editorials&Itemid=281

Kuvac, P. (2011, August 5). Where are all the green jobs? [Web blog entry]. Retrieved from the website Sustainable Industries, http://sustainableindustries.com/articles/2011/08/where-are-all-green-jobs

Lyons, K. (2009). Entry level job search in the green industry [Web blog entry]. Retrieved from the website job-hunt.org, http://www.job-hunt.org/green-jobs-job-search/entry-level-green-jobs.shtml

Muro, M., Rothwell, J., & Saha, D. (2011, July 13). Sizing the clean economy: A national and regional green jobs assessment. The Brookings Institute. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/reports/2011/0713_clean_economy.aspx

Nevada Natural Resource Education Council (2005). Definition of environmental education. Retrieved from http://www.nnrec.org/profdev/plt/handouts/Definition&Objectives.pdf

Newman, J. (2011). Green education: An A-to-Z guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Slywotzky, J., Wise, R., & Weber, K. (2003). How to grown when markets don’t. New York, NY: Warner Business Books

U.S. Green Building Council (2011). USGBC faculty program. Retrieved from http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1737

WebEcoist (2011). A Brief history of the modern green movement in America. Retrieved from http://webecoist.com/2008/08/17/a-brief-history-of-the-modern-green-movement/


The FPA-BM has as Chairman of the Board Dr. John Peterson, Ph.D. A leading education specialist for over 15 years, Dr. John Peterson is a published author and the creator and implementer of several undergraduate and graduate programs. Emphasizing practical access to learning methodologies, Dr. Peterson has developed curricula focused on online and face-to-face training, optimizing new technologies for the benefit of his students’ achievements in real-world careers. In addition, Dr. Peterson is an experienced consultant to the requirements of the Florida Department of Education regarding the licensing and compliance of new institutions.

Sustainable Architecture Design

Sustainable Architecture Design

by Dr. John Peterson, PhD, FPA-BM Chairman of the Board

Rationale for Curriculum Need and Purpose

Architectural education plays a fundamental role in training future building designers. Since buildings consume approximately 50 percent of the world’s resources (Al-Hassan & Dudek, 2009), over the last several years the interest in sustainable design has grown exponentially among design professionals, educators and students. The rise of the US Green Building Council and its LEED rating system – LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. The United States Green Building Council (USGBC) created LEED as a rating system for green building – has led an unprecedented demand for professionals that understand sustainable design, and can apply its principles to the design of buildings and communities. Students that leave architectural courses prepared with this knowledge have an important advantage over students who have taken a more traditional approach. A growing list of leading firms across the country are now insisting on green architecture knowledge as a pre-requisite for hiring, suggesting that sustainability has finally entered the mainstream. Many students are finding that LEED accreditation on their resume is just as important as knowledge of industry-related software applications.

An opportunity exists for architectural drafting programs to embrace this future by providing a coursework that teaches the basics of sustainable design to their students. The construction-related journal, Contractor (2009), in a new study from the U.S. Green Building Council and Booz Allen Hamilton, a strategy and technology consulting firm, stated that despite a challenging economic outlook, green building will support 7.9 million U.S. jobs and generate $554 billion into the U.S. economy, including $396 billion in wages over the next four years. Robin Pogrebin (2009) stated on the article Architects Return to Class as Green Design Advances published on The New York Times:

This kind of expertise is now being applied to every aspect of design and construction, from how materials are transported to and disposed of at a work site, to the tools and machines used, to consideration of how a building will perform over the next half-century (Pogredin, 2009).

Definition of Sustainable Architecture Design

Sustainable architecture is designing buildings keeping in mind environmental goals and sustainable development. The terms green architecture or green buildings are often used interchangeably with sustainable architecture to promote this definition further. In a broader sense and taking into account the pressing economic and political issues, sustainable architecture seeks to reduce the negative environmental impact of the buildings by increasing efficiency and moderation in the utilization of building materials, energy and development space. Similarly, green architecture denotes economical, energy-saving, environmentally-friendly, sustainable development and explores the relationship between architecture and ecology (Brister, 2007).

As the global financial crisis continues to threaten the livelihood of American businesses and workers – and halts both the momentum and quality of new, sustainable infrastructure – the nation confronts a double challenge: not only are building projects at a standstill, but we risk losing to other careers many of the professionals needed to design and construct the next generation of green buildings (McEntee, 2009).

Curriculum Alignment with Institution’s Mission Statement and Philosophy

Curriculum alignment is the first and arguably the most important step in increasing student achievement relative to the curriculum frameworks and criterion and norm referenced assessments.

Learners of the Sustainable Architecture Design Course

For the younger generation, this area provides a wide variety of opportunities for workers to find jobs they consider meaningful, impactful and important. It also provides an older generation of workers the ability to mentor and use the depth and breadth of their experience to improve upon the existing infrastructure of the nation and truly bring it up to 21st century standards (McEntee, 2009).

Desired Outcomes of the Curriculum

Course outcomes are major results that all graduates of the Sustainable Architecture Design course are expected to achieve. They are specific to the target occupation, professional area, and discipline. By achieving the competencies in this course, students will build some of skills, abilities, and attitudes required by the course outcomes. Prior to finishing the course students will need to demonstrate that they have achieved the Sustainable Architecture Design course outcomes by completing all the required performance assessments. When students perform these assessments they will create products such as portfolios, models, or samples that they can use to document their qualifications for prospective employers or higher education.

This course will help students work toward the achievement of the following course goals and outcomes:

Goals

  • Explains the philosophy and underpinnings of effective integrative design, addressing systems thinking and building and community design from a whole-living system perspective
  • Details how to implement integrative design from the discovery phase to occupancy, supported by process outlines, itemized tasks, practice examples, case studies, and real-world stories illustrating the nature of this work
  • Explores the deeper understanding of integration that is required to transform architectural practice and our role on the planet

Objectives

Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:

  • Apply sustainable architectural concepts and applications to all aspects of the design process
  • Apply use of perspective and projected-view drawing practices
  • Describe documents required for construction practices
  • Design residential or commercial plans, elevations, sections, and details using industry standards of construction rules
  • Apply the design creation process
  • Discuss and describe architectural drawing practices
  • Accurately develop and use Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) drawing functions
  • Apply dimensioning of architectural drawings
  • Use and apply basic Building Information Modeling (BIM) software menus and commands
  • Use correct BIM software systems on creation of green architecture
  • Access and use BIM software menu structure, geometry editing functions, BIM software command entities, and accurately develop and use BIM software drawing setup
  • Accurately apply dimension drawing according to accepted drafting standards

Core Values of Sustainable Architecture Design Course

Students of the Sustainable Architecture Design course shall:

  • Act responsibly
  • Communicate clearly and effectively
  • Demonstrate essential computer skills
  • Demonstrate essential mathematical skills
  • Develop job-seeking skills
  • Respect self and others as members of a diverse society
  • Think critically and creatively
  • Work cooperatively
  • Value learning

Course Attendance

Importance of class attendance

Class attendance contributes significantly to academic success. Students who attend classes regularly tend to earn higher grades and have higher passing rates in courses. Excessive absences may jeopardize their grades or even their ability to continue in this course.

Class absences

If students are absent from class for any reason they are responsible for all missed work and for promptly contacting the instructor.

Course External Standards

External Standards are credentialing requirements established by external organizations such as professional associations, regulatory agencies, consumer groups, hiring organizations, accreditation organizations, or government agencies to create shared expectations for quality.

The standards for the Sustainable Architecture DesignCourse have been set by ADDA (American Drafting and Design Association). By constructing the Architectural Design course so that it meets the ADDA standards, we increase the credibility of all its graduates.

Independent Work

Periodically throughout the course students will be asked to participate in independent activities, which may take several different forms, such as independent study, interactive instruction, laboratory exercises, research, internet exploration, and job shadowing. These activities are an integral part of the total curriculum, but will have minimal instructor involvement. They provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate their abilities to work independently to meet a designated goal as well as to show development in the various core abilities associated with the course.

Instruction Techniques and Strategies

This course will follow a goal-based model for instruction. According to Glatthorn, Boschee, & Whitehead (2006, p. 131), this goal-based model has several features that recommend it.

Method of Course Delivery

Dr. Bob Kizlik (2009) wrote on the ADPRIMA website, that direct and indirect instruction are two main categories that many educators find useful for classifying teaching methods, but it is a bit more complicated than placing all instruction into two categories. Any instructional method a teacher uses has advantages, disadvantages, and requires some preliminary preparation. Often times, a particular teaching method will naturally flow into another, all within the same lesson, and excellent teachers have developed the skills to make the process seamless to the students. Very well said

Table 2 – The most effective instructional methods according to Kizlik (2009) to be used on this course:

Cooperative learning

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

It helps foster mutual responsibility.

It is supported by research as an effective technique.

Students learn to be patient, less critical and more compassionate.

Some students don’t work well this way.

Loners find it hard to share answers.

Aggressive students try to take over.

Bright students tend to act superior.

Decide what skills or knowledge is to be learned.

It requires some time to prepare students to learn how to work in groups.

Lecture

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

Factual material is presented in a direct, logical manner.
It may provide experiences that inspire – useful for large groups.

Proficient oral skills are necessary.
Audience is often passive.
Learning is difficult to gauge

There should be a clear introduction and summary.
Effectiveness related to time and scope of content.

Lecture with discussion

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

It involves students, at least after the lecture.
Students can question, clarify and challenge.
Lecture can be interspersed with discussion.

Time constraints may affect discussion opportunities.
Effectiveness is connected to appropriate questions and discussion.

It often requires teacher to “shift gears” quickly.

Teacher should be prepared to allow questions during lecture, as appropriate.
Teacher should also anticipate difficult questions and prepare appropriate responses in advance.

Brainstorming

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

It is a listening exercise that allows creative thinking for new ideas.
It encourages full participation because all ideas are equally recorded.
It draws on group’s knowledge and experience.
Spirit of cooperation is created.
One idea can spark other ideas.

It can be unfocused.
It needs to be limited to 5 – 7 minutes.
Students may have difficulty getting away from known reality.
If not managed well, criticism and negative evaluation may occur.
Value to students depends in part on their maturity level.

Teacher selects issue.
Teacher must be ready to intervene when the process is hopelessly bogged down.

Video and slides

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

It is an entertaining way of introducing content and raising issues.
It usually keeps group’s attention.
It looks professional.
It stimulates discussion.

It can raise too many issues to have a focused discussion.
Discussion may not have full participation.
It is most effective when following discussion.

Need to obtain and set up equipment.
Effective only if teacher prepares for discussion after the presentation

Discussion

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

It pools ideas and experiences from group.
It is effective after a presentation, film or experience that needs to be analyzed.
It allows everyone to participate in an active process.

Not practical with more than 20 students.
A few students can dominate.
Some students may not participate.
Is time consuming.
It can get off the track.

It requires careful planning by teacher to guide discussion.
It requires question outline.

Small group discussion

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

It allows for participation of everyone.
Students are often more comfortable in small groups.
Groups can reach consensus

It needs careful thought as to purpose of group.
Groups may get side tracked.

Need to prepare specific tasks or questions for group to answer.

Case studies

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

It develops analytic and problem solving skills.
It allows for exploration of solutions for complex issues.
It allows student to apply new knowledge and skills.

Students may not see relevance to own situation.
Insufficient information can lead to inappropriate results.
Not appropriate for elementary level.

Case must be clearly defined.
Case study must be prepared.

Worksheet and surveys

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

It allows students to think for them without being influenced by others.
Individual thoughts can then be shared in large group.

It can be used only for short period of time.

Teacher has to prepare handouts.

Guest speakers

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

It personalizes topic.
It breaks down audience’s stereotypes.

It may not be a good speaker.

Contact speakers and coordinate.
Introduce speaker appropriately.

Values clarification

Advantages

Disadvantages

Preparation

It gives students an opportunity to explore values and beliefs.
It allows students to discuss values in a safe environment.
It gives structure to discussion.

Students may not be honest about their values.
Students may be too self-conscious.
Students may not be able to articulate their values in an effective way.

Teacher must carefully prepare exercise.
Teacher must give clear instructions.
Teacher must prepare discussion questions.

Learning and Assessment Activities

“Assessment is a process of gathering information for the purpose of making judgments about a current state of affairs” (Pellegrino, 2002). In educational assessment, the information collected is designed to help teachers, administrators, policymakers, and the public conclude what students know and how well they know it, presumably for the purpose of enhancing future outcomes. The learning activities for each Lesson Plan tell students what they can do to master the learning objectives and competencies. They are their assignments.

Performance-Based Course

The student’s success is the main goal of any learning experience. In performance-based learning, the instructor carefully identifies what students need to be able to do as a result of a learning experience. Next, the instructor determines how students can show that they have learned these skills. Finally, the instructor plans learning activities that will help students develop the target skills, knowledge, and attitudes.

Table 3

Performance-based learning tasks according to Dr. Carol Gordon (2001)

Authentic Learning Task Content

  • is meaningful, grows out of academic principles
  • is derived from standards/curriculum
  • requires learners to use tools of the expert
  • provides opportunities for problem solving, decision making
  • offers learners opportunities for display, presentation, sharing of outcomes

Authentic Learning Task MethodologyThe learner

  • relates new information to prior knowledge
  • applies information to new situations
  • uses divergent, critical thinking
  • is actively engaged in a variety of tasks
  • has choices
  • has opportunities for revision, self and peer evaluation
  • has opportunities to work in a group

Authentic Learning Task Design

  • expectations and outcomes are clear
  • exemplars are provided
  • resources are identified and required
  • assessment tool is appropriate for the task
  • learners participate in developing the assessment
  • learners evaluate the task
  • educators critique and revise the task based on evidence collected

Benefits for students

  1. Students will learn skills and knowledge that they can apply, rather than outlines of information.
  2. Instructors tell students right up front WHAT they learn, how instructors expect students to show WHEN students have learned, and HOW students may go about learning. This helps instructors plan how to invest student’s time and energy.
  3. Students know the standards for evaluation before the assessment. Students earn a grade according to how well they perform the skills rather than according to how well others in the class perform. Students are not graded on a curve.
  4. Students are actively involved in the learning. Instructors design learning activities and assignments that teach students to solve problems and to learn on their own.
  5. When students complete a learning experience, they have documentation showing the skills and knowledge they have learned. Students can use this information when they seek employment, admission to further education, advanced standing or transfer of credit.

Students’ Assessment and Measures of Outcomes

Course Evaluation Strategies (Methodologies)

The course evaluation strategy will be based on a Consensus Model, using Traditional and Technical Evaluation. According to McNeil (2009), the purpose of evaluation is to decide on the value of a curricular intervention within a course. A significant difference in student performance during and after the intervention may be taken as evidence that the intervention had a positive effect (p. 228).

Technology Components

The subject matter in this course will be presented in the form of lectures, class discussion, demonstrations, collaborative activities, computer assignments, student projects and presentations, on-line research as well as guest speakers and field trips when deemed appropriate. The classroom will be set up as a computer laboratory, with personal computer workstations available to individual students. The classroom shall have a projector and a screen installed, with an allocated computer for the projector. Also the classroom shall have a large format printer, a laser printer for smaller prints, and a scanner. The instructor shall have a digital camera made available by the school for class assignments.

References

Al-Hassan, A., & Dudek, S. (2009). Sustainable architecture education in Kuwait University and the impact of the society in the learning process [Abstract]. Journal of the World Universities Forum, 1(2), 21-28. Abstract retrieved from http://wuj.cgpublisher.com/product/pub.173/prod.24

Amazon.com (2009). The Integrative design guide to green building: Redefining the practice of sustainability. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Integrative-Design-Guide-Green-Building/dp/0470181109/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1258040441&sr=1-1

Amazon.com (2009). The philosophy of sustainable design. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Philosophy-Sustainable-Design-Jason-McLennan/dp/0974903302/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1258040260&sr=8-1

Brister, W. (2007, September 3). Sustainable green architecture [Article]. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Sustainable-Green-Architecture&id=715327&opt=print

Contractor Magazine (2009, November 12). New study: green building will support 8 million U.S. jobs [Article]. Retrieved from http://contractormag.com/news/green-study-2345/

Glatthorn, A., Boschee, F., & Whitehead, B. (2006). Curriculum leadership: Development and implementation (1st ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Gordon, C. (2001, June 1). Performance learning and assessment: The wave of the future [PowerPoint slides]. Boston University. Retrieved from http://www.acrlnec.org/sigs/nelig/2001/gordon/

McEntee, C. (2009, October 30). In American Institute of Architects (Ed.), Building and greening key to jumpstarting the economy [Article]. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/articlePrint?articleId=US132513336720091030

McNeil, J. (2009). Contemporary curriculum: In thought and action (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Pellegrino, J. (2002). Knowing what students know. Issues in Science and Technology, 48(2).

Pogrebin, R. (2009, August 19). In New York Times (Ed.), Architects return to class as green design advances [Article]. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/20/education/20BUILD.html?_r=3&pagewanted=print


The FPA-BM has as Chairman of the Board Dr. John Peterson, Ph.D. A leading education specialist for over 15 years, Dr. John Peterson is a published author and the creator and implementer of several undergraduate and graduate programs. Emphasizing practical access to learning methodologies, Dr. Peterson has developed curricula focused on online and face-to-face training, optimizing new technologies for the benefit of his students’ achievements in real-world careers. In addition, Dr. Peterson is an experienced consultant to the requirements of the Florida Department of Education regarding the licensing and compliance of new institutions.

Learning to make changes through technology

Learning to make changes through technology

By Dr Nilsa Fleury, DeD, FPA-BM Director of Education

Technology has been the agent of change in the world that has affected people in various aspects such as communication, information, education, and business. Supporting business goals, technology has influenced on training and learning and helping companies to gain competitive advantage (Noe, 2010). Cutting costs and time, new technologies deliver online learning and bring benefits to the employees and organizations. Workers can work together from different locations and collaborate with each other. Noe (2010) said “Technology has allowed learning to become a more dynamics process” (p. 299).

Different forms to transfer the process of learning using multimedia, computer-based training (CBT), DVD, CD-Room, laser disk, and interactive can also help companies in different trainings and some of them can be blended with face-to-face classrooms. As an example, Ritz Camera Centers, Capital One, and Nike are using e-learning to improve employees’ performance and enhance their selling skills (Noe, 2010). Although it is very expensive, different types of simulations presented a variety of games that are being used by organizations to train their employees to be effective in decision-making, customer-service, key-process, and culture. In addition, virtual reality and virtual worlds that include a three-dimensional learning experience make more effective and realistic the workers experience (Noe, 2010). Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), iPods, MPB3, and GPS are examples of some mobile technology that help organizations to deliver their training.

Using artificial intelligence, Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) provides instructions for tutoring, coaching, and empowering (Noe, 2010). Organizing knowledge and information and distributing individual and corporate knowledge through the organization, technology such as expert systems, groupware, and Electronic Performance Systems (EPS) are applied for specific problems, improving business processes, and employees. Interactive voice technology, imaging, and training software applications are also making administrative training more efficient and effective (Noe, 2010). According to Noe (2010), Learning Management Systems (LMS) is a technology platform that provides employees, managers, and trainers the ability to perform their activities. LMS is an important human capital management that integrates with all the aspects of human resource function. Noe (2010) wrote that organizations adopt LMS to centralize “management of learning activities, track regulatory compliance, measure training usage, and measure employee performance” (p. 332).

Further, two web 2.0 technologies, Wikis and blogs. Wikis support changes and facilitate training and communication, promote peer teaching, and share knowledge (Currie, 2010). On the other hand, blogs allow employees to voice concerns about work-related matters, and they are easy to administrate their users (Currie, 2010). Currie (2010) stated that blogs are valuable because they facilitate communication posting and commenting become habits. Wikis and blogs also have impact on knowledge management, rapid application development, customer relationship management, collaboration and communication, innovation and training (Andriole, 2010).

Share and organize knowledge, modify and develop application faster, communicate with customers effectively, coordinate discussions and reach people faster, increase innovation, and support traditional training are some examples of these metrics impacts. However, Moran (2011) said that wikis present some problems and are not recommended to be included as reference in doctoral papers: (a) they cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries, (b) sometimes vandals create malicious entries that go uncorrected for months, and (c) few editors and contributors use their real name or provide any information about who they are. Finally, the author (Moran, 2011) cited other reasons and examples to reinforce this idea as wikis are not a primal source and some articles may contain errors. Educators want to reduce misinformation and incorrect information coming to the papers, in which wikis and blogs are not an appropriate source of citation and they do not have peer review.


The FPA-BM has as Director of Education Dr. Nilsa Fleury, Ed.D. Dr. Nilsa, is a consultant, university professor and information analyst. Dr. Nilsa graduated in Business Administration from FACE – UFMG, postgraduate in Industrial Economics – UFMG, Specialization in Information Systems by UNA – Cepederh. She holds a Master in Business Science and Doctorate in Education, concentration in Leadership at Nova Southeastern University. She worked as a consultant for the government and private sector in Brazil, USA and Canada. In addition, Dr. Nilsa taught business in some universities in Brazil. She teaches Business and Education courses for undergraduate and graduate courses in the USA.